Thermal power plant cooling context and engineering Carey Wayne

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Thermal power plant cooling context and engineering Carey Wayne

Table of Contents

PREFACE ……………………………………………………………………………… I
1 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Purpose and Scope ……………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Background on Water for Power Plant Cooling ………………………… 6
1.2.1 Water “Use” Definitions …………………………………………………… 6
1.2.2 Configurations that Characterize Water “Use” of Power Plant
Cooling Systems ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.2.3 Trends in Power Plant and Cooling System Installations
States) 17
1.2.4 Measuring and Estimating Thermal Power Plant Cooling Water
Consumption and Withdrawal …………………………………………………………….. 21
1.3 Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………….. 26
1.4 References ………………………………………………………………………. 27
2 THE CONTEXT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
WATER USAGE ………………………………………………………………………… 1
2.1 Power Plant Cooling as Part of a Larger Whole System ……………… 1
2.2 Environmental Considerations for Power Plant Water Usage ……. 11
2.2.1 Environmental Effects of Thermal Power Plants ………………… 12
2.2.2 Regulatory Context ………………………………………………………… 15
2.2.3 EPA Analysis of Costs and Benefits of Retrofitting From Once-
Through Cooling to Cooling Towers ……………………………………………………… 21
2.3 Balancing Thermoelectric Power Production and Thermal Pollution
22
2.4 Energy Information Administration Collection and Dissemination of
Cooling System Data ………………………………………………………………………… 28
2.4.1 EIA and Its Relevant Forms ……………………………………………… 28
2.4.2 Ensuring Accuracy of EIA Data …………………………………………. 29
2.4.3 Maintaining Relevance of EIA Data …………………………………… 30
2.4.4 Cooling System Data Collected by EIA ………………………………. 31
(United …………………………………………………………………………………..
2.5 Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………….. 32
2.6 References ………………………………………………………………………. 32
3 ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL MODELING OF
POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEMS ……………………………………… 1
3.1 Heat and Water Balance of Power Plant Cooling Systems ………….. 1
3.1.1 Introduction to Cooling System Types ………………………………… 1
3.1.2 Once-Through Cooling ……………………………………………………… 2
3.1.3 Wet-Cooling Towers ………………………………………………………… 4
3.1.4 Heat Balance of a Cooling Tower ……………………………………….. 6
3.1.5 Water Balance for Wet-Cooling Towers ……………………………… 9
3.1.6 Wet-Cooling Tower Materials and Design …………………………. 13
3.1.7 Dry-Cooling Towers ………………………………………………………… 18
3.1.8 Parallel Condensing Systems …………………………………………… 24
3.1.9 Hybrid (Wet-Dry) Cooling Towers …………………………………….. 25
3.1.10 Wind Impacts on Dry-Cooling Towers ………………………………. 28
3.2 Summary of S-GEM: System-Level Generic Model of Thermal
Cooling Systems ……………………………………………………………………………… 31
3.2.1 Sensitivity of S-GEM ……………………………………………………….. 35
3.2.2 Effects of Ambient Conditions: Once-Through Cooling ……….. 38
3.2.3 Effects of Ambient Conditions: Wet-Cooling Tower ……………. 39
3.3 Cooling of Natural Ga s Combustio n an d Combine d Cyc le
Power
Plants 42
3.3.1 Inlet Air Cooling in Gas Turbines ………………………………………. 43
3.3.2 Water for DeNOx System in Gas Turbines …………………………. 43
3.3.3 Natural Gas Combined Cycle Cooling Requirements …………… 44
3.4 Extraction of Water From Power Plant Exhaust Gas ………………… 45
3.4.1 Condensing Heat Exchanger ……………………………………………. 45
3.4.2 Flue-Gas Water Recovery Calculation—NGCC Example ………. 45
3.4.3 Flue-Gas Water Recovery Calculation—Coal Example ………… 47
3.5 Specific Coolin g Wate r Requiremen ts in Comme rcial
N uclear Powe r 48
3.5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 48
3.5.2 Water needs during normal operation. …………………………….. 50
3.5.3 Handling of Spent Reactor Fuel ……………………………………….. 54
3.5.4 Discharge of Cooling Water …………………………………………….. 56
3.5.5 Cooling After Shutdown and During Emergencies ………………. 57
3.5.6 Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs …………………………….. 60
3.5.7 Summary ………………………………………………………………………. 63
3.6 USGS Estimation of Water Consumption and Withdrawal—
Including Forced Evaporation ……………………………………………………………. 64
3.6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 66
3.6.2 Background …………………………………………………………………… 66
3.6.3 Forced-Evaporation Model ……………………………………………… 69
3.6.4 Discussion …………………………………………………………………….. 74
3.6.5 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….. 75
3.7 Evaporation Suppression From Reservoirs …………………………….. 76
3.8 Considerations for Water Quality and Treatment for Power Plant
Cooling Water ………………………………………………………………………………… 79
3.9 Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………….. 83
3.10 References …………………………………………………………………… 83
4 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS AND DRIVERS ………. 1
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………. 1
4.2 Cooling System Alternatives …………………………………………………. 1
4.2.1 Once-Through Cooling ……………………………………………………… 1
4.2.2 Closed-Cycle Wet Cooling …………………………………………………. 2
4.2.3 Dry Cooling ……………………………………………………………………… 2
4.2.4 Hybrid Cooling ………………………………………………………………… 3
4.3 Cooling System Selection Methodology and Trade-offs ……………… 4
4.3.1 Costs Specific to Cooling System ………………………………………… 5
4.3.2 Plant Costs Affected by Cooling System Choice ……………………. 5
4.3.3 Other Plant Equipment …………………………………………………….. 6
4.3.4 Cooling System Related “Penalty” Costs ……………………………… 6
4.3.5 System Optimization ………………………………………………………… 7
4.4 Cost and Performance Comparisons of Cooling Systems for New
Thermal Power Plants ……………………………………………………………………….. 7
4.4.1 Cost of Water Conservation …………………………………………….. 11
4.5 System Economic Studies of Cooling System Retrofits …………….. 11
4.5.1 Retrofit Cost Methodology ……………………………………………… 14
4.5.2 Degrees of Difficulty of Once-Through to Wet-Cooling Tower
Retrofits ………………………………………………………………………………………….… 16
4.5.3 Cost Ranges for Cooling System Retrofits ………………………….. 18
4.5.4 Nuclear-Specific Issues ……………………………………………………. 20
4.5.5 Examples of Thermal Power Plants That Have Retrofitted Once-
Through Cooling Systems …………………………………………………………………… 20
4.6 Economic Benefits of Alternative Cooling Technologies …………… 22
4.6.1 Value of Resiliency Against Water Constraints …………………… 22
4.6.2 Insurance Against Water Constraints ……………………………….. 23
4.6.3 Applicability to Retrofit and New Construction ………………….. 24
4.7 Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………….. 24
4.8 References ……………………………………………………………………….. 25
5 COOLING SYSTEM CASE STUDIES …………………………… 1
5.1 Various Case Studies …………………………………………………………… 1
5.1.1 Argentina—ACC Instead of Once-Through Sea Water to Avoid
Disturbed Habitat for Coastal Tourism …………………………………………………… 1
5.1.2 ACC to Avoid Visible Plumes ……………………………………………… 2
5.1.3 North Africa—ACC Instead of Nearby Brackish or Sea Water … 3
5.2 Drought and Water for Energy in Australia ……………………………… 4
5.2.1 Air-Cooling Kogan Creek Power Station ………………………………. 6
5.2.2 Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project ………………………………………… 7
5.2.3 Conclusion: Australia Case Study ……………………………………….. 7
5.3 Regulatory Frameworks and Incentives for Australian Power Plants
to Adopt Water Efficiency Measures …………………………………………………….. 8
5.4 Municipal Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling …………………….. 10
5.4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 10
5.4.2 CPS Energy ……………………………………………………………………. 11
5.4.3 History of Braunig and Calaveras Lake Power Stations ……….. 11
5.4.4 Braunig and Calaveras Power Stations ……………………………… 14
5.4.5 Water Chemistry ……………………………………………………………. 18
5.4.6 Challenges of Reclaimed Water Use …………………………………. 20
5.4.7 Water Supply Management Strategies ……………………………… 22
5.4.8 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………… 23
5.4.9 Acknowledgements ……………………………………………………….. 23
5.5 Case Study of Dry Cooling in South Africa ……………………………… 24
5.5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 24
5.5.2 History and Plant Configurations ……………………………………… 25
5.5.3 General Operational Experience With Dry-Cooling Systems … 29
5.6 Power Plant Cooling Systems in Spain ………………………………….. 31
5.6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 31
5.6.2 Iberian Climate Atlas ………………………………………………………. 31
5.6.3 Spanish Power Plants ……………………………………………………… 34
5.6.4 Cooling Tendency …………………………………………………………… 37
5.7 References ………………………………………………………………………. 39
GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………………………….. 1

Preface

ASME is committed to providing engineering solutions for the
benefit of human kind, including the identification of methods to
improve the efficiency of water usage in thermoelectric power generation
and other industrial facilities. The ASME Emerging Technology
Committee headed by Joseph Beaman, Ph.D., of the University of Texas,
Austin, first identified energy-water nexus as a multidisciplinary focus
area for ASME. Subsequently, the Strategic Planning Committee (SPC)
led by Chinh Bui, Ph.D., P.E., of UTC Aerospace Systems, and Raj
Manchanda, ASME Emerging Technologies, developed a portfolio
expansion plan that included the engagement of various experts on the
subject within ASME Divisions and other external organizations.
Additionally, a stage-gate review process was developed to evaluate and
validate the emerging area of Energy Water Nexus (EWN) Technology.
The ASME Center for Research & Technology Development’s
(CRTD) Research Committee on Water Management Technology, led by
Michael Tinkleman, Ph.D., ASME staff, must also be acknowledged for
their role in engaging and validating the energy-water arena for the
Society. Sriram Somasundaram of Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory led the early EWN Task Force, and ultimately, Mike
Hightower of Sandia National Laboratories, who transformed the SPC
Energy-Water Nexus Task Force into the Energy-Water Nexus
Interdisciplinary Council, led it
To build ASME’s multidisciplinary community in the energy-water
nexus space, ASME Emerging Technologies facilitated the development
of knowledge dissemination products and services, including conference
technical sessions, webinars, and articles to further explore industry
needs. As an additional step to accomplish ASME’s objectives within the
energy-water nexus, in 2011 ASME Standards and Certification
conducted a survey among engineers working in power plants and other
industrial facilities heavily dependent upon water usage to determine the
need for technical guidance documents on the efficient use of water. The
survey results indicated a definite need for documents focusing primarily
on the areas of overall performance and technology related to the
efficient and sustained use of water resources.
In October 2012, the Board on Standardization and Testing and the
Standards and Certification Council approved the creation of a standards
committee on Water Efficiency Guidelines for Power and Other
Industrial Facilities (WEP) and its charter:
“Develop guidance documents to promote the efficient use of water
in applications within power and other industrial facilities and to aid in
evaluation of technical options. Topics include, but are not limited to,
cooling systems, the use of fresh and non-fresh water resources, and
innovative water reuse and water recovery technologies.”
As of June 2013, two WEP subcommittees and their charters were
established and approved by the Board on Standardization and Testing.
The subcommittee on Innovative Water Conservation, Reuse, and
Recovery Technologies:
“To develop guidelines of best practices, performance assessments,
and evaluation and reporting criteria in the field of innovative water
conservation, reuse, and recovery technologies.”
The subcommittee on the Use of Fresh and Non-Fresh Water
Resources:
“To develop guidelines describing the aspects of facility
development based on water resources availability. This includes, but is
not limited to, providing best practices, performance assessments,
evaluation methods, and reporting criteria for optimal use of fresh and
no-fresh water.”
This book, Thermal Power Plant Cooling: Context and Engineering,
serves as a vehicle to disseminate the knowledge on current practices in
the area of Energy-Water Nexus. It is anticipated that it will be a
stepping-stone for practitioners to address their immediate needs while
spurring other activities, discussions, and collaborations among ASME
and external technical communities. With the help of the WEP
committees this may lead to developing additional methodologies to
further benefit human kind in water usage efficiency.