The Structural Engineers Professional Training Manual By David K Adams S E

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The Structural Engineers Professional Training Manual By David K Adams S E

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Contents

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2.7 International Issues 48
2.8 Advocacy 49
3 The Business of Structural Engineering 51
3.1 Places of Employment 51
3.1.1 Typical Hierarchy 52
3.1.2 Government 54
3.1.3 Private Consulting Firms 54
3.1.4 Industry 55
3.1.5 Colleges and Universities 56
3.2 How Does an Engineering Business Survive? 57
3.2.1 Management 58
3.2.2 Employees 58
3.2.3 Projects 58
3.2.4 Procedures 59
3.2.5 Communication 59
3.2.6 Qualifications 60
3.3 Clients and Consultants 61
3.4 Engineering Services 62
3.4.1 Contracts 63
3.4.2 Scope of Services 64
3.4.3 Estimating Your Work: Time and Cost 68
3.4.4 Estimating Your Worth: Fair Compensation 68
3.5 Crisis Management 69
3.5.1 Philosophy of Conflict Resolution 69
3.5.2 Working with Difficult People 71
3.5.3 Legal Means of Resolution 73
3.5.4 Litigation 74
4 Building Projects 75
4.1 Building Systems 75
4.1.1 Structural 77
4.1.2 Plumbing 79
4.1.3 Mechanical 81
4.1.4 Electrical 81
4.1.5 Fire Protection 82
4.1.6 Egress and Circulation 84
4.1.7 Weatherproofing 85
4.2 The Building Team 89
4.2.1 Owners 90
4.2.2 Architects 91
viii Contents
4.2.3 Engineers 93
4.2.4 Contractors and Subcontractors 94
4.3 Land Development 94
4.3.1 Ownership and Legal Interests 95
4.3.2 Surveying 95
4.3.3 Civil Engineering Work 96
4.4 Project Phases 97
4.4.1 Design Phase 97
4.4.2 Approval Phase 98
4.4.3 Bidding Phase 100
4.4.4 Construction Phase 101
4.4.5 Occupancy and Continued Use 105
5 Bridge Projects 107
5.1 Types of Bridges 107
5.1.1 Highway 107
5.1.2 Railway 110
5.1.3 Others 111
5.2 Size and Function of Bridges 112
5.2.1 Reasons to Span 112
5.2.2 Scour 114
5.2.3 Elements of Bridges 114
5.3 Bridge Systems 121
5.3.1 Slab Spans 121
5.3.2 Steel 121
5.3.3 Prestressed Concrete 122
5.3.4 Timber 123
5.3.5 Movable 123
5.4 Other Issues 125
5.4.1 Drainage 126
5.4.2 Joints 127
5.5 Project Phases 128
5.5.1 Approval Phase 128
5.5.2 Design Phase 130
5.5.3 Construction Phase 132
6 Building Your Own Competence 139
6.1 Technical Growth 139
6.1.1 Continuing Education Regulations for Licensure 140
6.1.2 Advanced Educational Degrees 141
6.1.3 Active Professional Involvement 142
Contents ix
6.1.4 Seminars, Conferences and Personal Research 142
6.1.5 Making Proper Use of Technical Research 143
6.2 The Art of Problem Solving 146
6.2.1 Critical Thinking 147
6.2.2 Reaching a Conclusion 149
6.3 Improving Your Productivity 149
6.3.1 How Quickly Can (or Should) You Design? 151
6.3.2 Time Management 152
6.3.3 Developing Consistency and Clarity 155
6.4 Building Your Confidence 156
6.4.1 Working Within Your Means 157
6.4.2 Computer Usage 158
6.4.3 Defending Your Results 159
6.5 Communication Skills 159
6.5.1 Philosophy of Good Communication 160
6.5.2 Verbal 161
6.5.3 Writing 161
7 Communicating Your Designs 165
7.1 Structural Calculations 166
7.1.1 Analysis and Design 167
7.1.2 Presentation 169
7.2 Project Specifications 171
7.2.1 General Organization 173
7.2.2 Bidding Documents and General Project Conditions 173
7.2.3 Technical Section 174
7.2.4 Special Sections or Conditions 175
7.3 Project Drawings 175
7.3.1 Goals and Methods 177
7.3.2 Presentation 179
7.3.3 Reviewing the Work of Other Consultants or Clients 180
7.3.4 Responsibility 181
7.4 Engineering Reports 182
8 Engineering Mechanics 185
8.1 Static Loads 185
8.1.1 Dead 186
8.1.2 Live 186
8.1.3 Snow 187
8.1.4 Soil Pressure 188
8.1.5 Others 189
x Contents
8.2 Dynamic-Type Loads 190
8.2.1 Understanding Structural Dynamics 190
8.2.2 Wind 191
8.2.3 Seismic 194
8.2.4 Blast, Impact, and Extreme Loads 201
8.3 Combining Loads and Forces 202
8.3.1 Design Methods 202
8.4 Introduction to Building Materials 203
8.4.1 Common Construction Materials 203
8.4.2 Environmentally Sensitive Materials 204
8.5 General Behavior of Structural Elements 204
8.5.1 Solid Body Mechanics 205
8.5.2 Serviceability 208
8.6 General Behavior of Structural Systems 209
8.6.1 Horizontal Systems 209
8.6.2 Vertical Systems 210
8.6.3 Redundancy and Reliability 214
8.7 General Behavior of Completed Structures 215
8.7.1 Buildings 215
8.7.2 Bridges 216
8.7.3 Progressive Collapse 217
9 Soil Mechanics 219
9.1 Character of Different Soil Types 220
9.1.1 Rock/Granite 221
9.1.2 Gravel 221
9.1.3 Sand 222
9.1.4 Silt and Clay 222
9.1.5 Other Soil Types 223
9.2 Preparing a Site for Construction 224
9.2.1 Geotechnical Reports 224
9.2.2 Clearing and Excavation 226
9.2.3 Grading 227
9.2.4 Compaction 228
9.3 Behavior of Foundation Types 230
9.3.1 Spread Footings 231
9.3.2 Continuous (Strip) Footings 232
9.3.3 Combined or Mat-Type Footings 233
9.3.4 Deep Foundations 235
9.3.5 Other Types or Systems 238
9.4 Buried or Retaining Structures 238
Contents xi
9.5 Factors to Consider in Foundation Design 241
9.5.1 Consequences of Poor Soils 241
9.5.2 Settlement 242
9.5.3 Risk 242
9.6 Codes and Standards 243
10 Understanding the Behavior of Concrete 245
10.1 Common Terms & Definitions 246
10.2 Elements of Concrete 247
10.2.1 Aggregate 247
10.2.2 Hydraulic Cement 249
10.2.3 Water 249
10.2.4 Admixtures 250
10.3 Characteristics of a Final Mix 251
10.4 Behavior of Concrete Elements 252
10.4.1 Plain Concrete 252
10.4.2 Reinforced Concrete 254
10.4.3 Precast and Prestressed Concrete 261
10.5 Behavior of Concrete Systems 266
10.5.1 Rigid Frames or Cantilevered Columns 266
10.5.2 Shear Walls 268
10.5.3 Horizontal Diaphragms 270
10.5.4 Shell-Type Structures 271
10.6 Construction 272
10.6.1 Risks in Design and During Service 275
10.7 Quality Control 276
10.7.1 Crack Control 277
10.8 Codes and Standards 277
11 Understanding the Behavior of Masonry
Construction 279
11.1 Common Terms and Definitions 279
11.2 Elements of Masonry Assemblies 281
11.2.1 Masonry Units 281
11.2.2 Mortar 288
11.2.3 Grout 289
11.2.4 Reinforcement 291
11.3 Behavior of Masonry Assemblies 293
11.3.1 Beams and Columns 294
11.3.2 Walls 297
xii Contents
11.3.3 Frames 298
11.3.4 Prestressed Assemblies 299
11.4 Construction 300
11.4.1 Constructability 301
11.4.2 Risk in Design and During Service 303
11.5 Quality Control 304
11.6 Codes and Standards 305
12 Understanding the Behavior of
Structural Steel 307
12.1 Common Terms and Definitions 307
12.2 Where Does Steel Come From? 308
12.2.1 Mining and Refining 310
12.2.2 Mills and Suppliers 312
12.2.3 Regulations 313
12.3 Behavior and Characteristics of Steel Shapes 315
12.3.1 Hot-Rolled Shapes 315
12.3.2 Plate Girders 316
12.3.3 Tubular and Pipe Sections 317
12.3.4 Composite Members 318
12.4 Behavior and Characteristics of Steel Connections 318
12.4.1 Bolts 319
12.4.2 Welds 320
12.4.3 High Strength Bolted Connections 324
12.5 Behavior of Steel-Framed Systems 325
12.5.1 Stability of Beams 325
12.5.2 Stability of Columns and Plates 326
12.5.3 Frames 328
12.5.4 Steel-Panel Shear Walls 330
12.6 Fabrication and Erection 331
12.6.1 Risks in Design and During Service 334
12.7 Quality Control 335
12.8 Codes and Standards 336
13 Understanding the Behavior of Wood
Framing 337
13.1 Common Terms and Definitions 337
13.2 Where Does Sawn Lumber Come From? 338
13.2.1 Lumber Supply and Harvest 338
13.2.2 Milling and Finishing 339
Contents xiii
13.2.3 Species 340
13.2.4 Grading Rules and Practices 341
13.3 General Characteristics of Wood 342
13.3.1 Structure 342
13.3.2 Mechanics 343
13.3.3 Moisture Content, Temperature, and Chemical Treatment 344
13.3.4 Engineered Lumber 345
13.4 Behavior of Wood Elements 346
13.4.1 Panels or Sheathing 347
13.4.2 Connections 349
13.4.3 Influence of Defects 352
13.5 Behavior of Wood-frame Systems 353
13.5.1 Horizontal Diaphragms 354
13.5.2 Laminated Decks 357
13.5.3 Frames 357
13.5.4 Trusses 358
13.5.5 Structural Wood Panel Shearwalls 360
13.5.6 Nonwood Panel Shearwalls 362
13.5.7 Wood Systems Combined with Other Materials 363
13.6 Construction 363
13.6.1 Risk in Design and During Service 364
13.7 Quality Control 366
13.8 Codes and Standards 366
References 369
Index 383
xiv C