STRUCTURES DESIGN MANUAL for Highways and Railways

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STRUCTURES DESIGN MANUAL for Highways and Railways

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CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE 1
FOREWORD 3
CONTENTS 5
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL 20
1.1 SCOPE 20
1.2 REFERENCE 21
1.3 DEFINITION 21
1.3.1 Highway Structure 21
1.3.2 Walkway Cover 21
1.3.3 Railway Bridge 21
1.3.4 Culvert 22
1.3.5 Earth-retaining Structure 22
1.3.6 Project Office 22
1.3.7 Designer 22
1.3.8 Checking Engineer 22
1.4 RAILWAY BRIDGES 22
1.5 APPROVED SUPPLIERS OF MATERIALS AND SPECIALIST
CONTRACTORS FOR PUBLIC WORKS 23
CHAPTER 2 RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT 24
2.1 RELIABILITY CLASSIFICATION 24
2.2 DESIGN WORKING LIFE 25
2.3 THE USE OF BS EN 1990 ANNEXES 25
2.4 DESIGN CHECKING 25
2.4.1 General 25
2.4.2 Classification of Highway Structures 25
2.4.3 Checking Engineer 27
2.4.4 Comment by the Chief Highway Engineer/Bridges and Structures 27
2.4.5 Checking Process 27
2.4.6 Highway Structures Design and Check Certificate 29
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CHAPTER 3 ACTIONS 33
3.1 GENERAL 33
3.2 COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS 33
3.2.1 General 33
3.2.2 Crack Width Verification Combination 38
3.2.3 Tensile Stress Verification Combinations for Prestressed Concrete
Members 38
3.3 DEAD LOAD AND SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD 39
3.4 WIND ACTIONS 40
3.4.1 General 40
3.4.2 Simplified Procedure for Determining Peak Velocity Pressure 41
3.4.3 Full Procedure for Determining Peak Velocity Pressure 42
3.4.4 Dynamic Response Procedure 46
3.4.5 Wind Forces 47
3.4.6 Force Coefficients 47
3.4.7 Reference Area 53
3.4.8 ULS Partial Factors 53
3.4.9 ψ Factors 53
3.5 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 54
3.5.1 General 54
3.5.2 Uniform Temperature Components 54
3.5.3 Temperature Difference Components 56
3.5.4 Simultaneity of Uniform and Temperature Difference Components 60
3.5.5 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 60
3.5.6 ULS Partial Factors 60
3.5.7 ψ Factors 60
3.6 ACCIDENTAL ACTIONS 60
3.6.1 General 60
3.6.2 Accidental Actions Caused by Road Vehicles 61
3.6.3 Accidental Actions Caused by Derailed Rail Traffic under or
adjacent to Structures 66
3.6.4 Accidental Actions Caused by Ship Traffic 67
3.7 TRAFFIC ACTIONS 67
3.7.1 General 67
3.7.2 Actions on Road Bridges 67
3.7.3 Actions on Footways, Cycle Tracks and Footbridges 72
3.7.4 ULS Partial Factors 73
3.7.5 ψ Factors 73
3.8 SEISMIC ACTIONS 73
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CHAPTER 4 DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE 74
4.1 GENERAL 74
4.2 REFERENCE RETURN PERIOD 74
4.3 REFERENCE PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION 74
4.4 IMPORTANCE CLASS 74
4.5 SEISMIC ACTIONS AS AN ACCIDENTAL ACTION 75
4.6 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN CRITERIA FOR LOW SEISMICITY 75
4.7 SITE DEPENDENT ELASTIC RESPONSE SPECTRUM 75
4.8 SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SEISMIC ACTIONS 76
4.9 QUASI-PERMANENT VALUES OF MASS CORRESPONDING TO
TRAFFIC ACTIONS 76
4.10 STRENGTH VERIFICATIONS – MATERIALS 76
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES 77
5.1 GENERAL 77
5.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 77
5.2.1 Strength 77
5.2.2 Elastic Deformation 80
5.2.3 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Concrete 80
5.2.4 Creep 80
5.2.5 Shrinkage 80
5.2.6 Stress-Strain Relations 80
5.3 REINFORCING STEEL 82
5.4 DURABILITY 83
5.4.1 Cement Content 83
5.4.2 Concrete Cover to Reinforcement 83
5.5 CRACK CONTROL 85
5.5.1 General 85
5.5.2 Early Thermal Movement 85
5.6 PRESTRESSING 89
5.6.1 General 89
5.6.2 Post-tensioning Systems 89
5.6.3 External Prestressing 90
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5.6.4 Specialist Prestressing Contractors 90
5.7 ADDITIONAL MODIFICATIONS TO BS EN 1992 AND THE UK NA TO
BS EN 1992 91
CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF STEEL BRIDGES 94
6.1 GENERAL 94
6.2 FATIGUE 94
6.3 HOT FORMED STRUCTURAL HOLLOW SECTIONS 94
6.4 FABRICATION 95
6.5 BLAST CLEANING 95
6.6 TESTING OF WELDS 95
6.7 HOT DIP GALVANIZING 96
6.8 ADDITIONAL MODIFICATIONS TO BS EN 1993 AND THE UK NA TO
BS EN 1993 96
CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES 100
7.1 GENERAL 100
7.2 ADDITIONAL MODIFICATIONS TO BS EN 1994 AND THE UK NA TO
BS EN 1994 100
CHAPTER 8 BEARINGS 102
8.1 GENERAL 102
8.2 CLASSIFICATION OF BEARINGS 102
8.3 SCHEDULE OF BEARINGS 102
8.4 SUPPLY AND INSTALLATION OF BEARINGS 105
8.5 TESTING 105
8.6 COMPRESSIVE STIFFNESS OF ELASTOMERIC LAMINATED
BEARINGS 105
8.7 DESIGN OF FIXINGS FOR BRIDGE BEARINGS 106
8.8 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 106
CHAPTER 9 MOVEMENT JOINTS 107
9.1 GENERAL 107
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9.1.1 Movements 107
9.1.2 Selection of Joint Type 107
9.2 PROPRIETARY MOVEMENT JOINTS 109
9.3 TRAFFIC LOADING ON MOVEMENT JOINTS 109
9.4 LOADING OF STRUCTURE BY STRAINING OF MOVEMENT JOINTS 110
9.5 WATERTIGHTNESS OF MOVEMENT JOINTS 110
9.6 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PROPRIETARY MOVEMENT
JOINTS 111
9.6.1 Requirements 111
9.6.2 Specification 111
9.7 SUPPLY AND INSTALLATION OF MOVEMENT JOINTS 112
9.8 DETAILING FOR PROPER INSTALLATION OF MOVEMENT JOINTS 112
9.9 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 114
CHAPTER 10 FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURES 115
10.1 FOUNDATIONS 115
10.1.1 General 115
10.1.2 Specialist Piling Contractors 115
10.1.3 Piling Downdrag 116
10.1.4 Differential Settlement 116
10.1.5 Cover to Pile Caps and Footings 116
10.2 BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES ADJACENT TO RAIL TRAFFIC 116
10.3 RAILWAY UNDERBRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES 117
10.4 HYDRAULIC EFFECTS ON BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES 117
10.4.1 Effects to be Considered 117
10.4.2 Backwater Effects 117
10.4.3 Effects of Waterborne Traffic 118
10.5 RUN-ON-SLABS 118
CHAPTER 11 PARAPETS 119
11.1 GENERAL 119
11.2 VEHICLE PARAPET GROUPS 119
11.2.1 Containment Levels 119
11.2.2 Selection Guidance 120
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11.3 PARAPET HEIGHTS 120
11.4 DESIGN DETAILS 120
11.4.1 Materials 120
11.4.2 Projections and Depressions 120
11.4.3 Structures Not Exclusively Used as Vehicular Bridges 120
11.5 METAL PARAPETS AND TOP RAILS 121
11.5.1 Design Requirements 121
11.5.2 Corrosion 121
11.5.3 Plinth 122
11.5.4 Bedding 123
11.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE PARAPETS 123
11.6.1 Design Requirements 123
11.6.2 Longitudinal Effects 123
11.7 PEDESTRIAN PARAPETS 124
11.8 BICYCLE PARAPETS 124
11.9 VEHICLE PARAPETS 125
11.10 SIGHT DISTANCES 125
11.11 RAILWAY OVERBRIDGE PARAPETS 125
11.11.1 High Containment Parapets 125
11.11.2 Overbridge Parapets 125
CHAPTER 12 FOOTBRIDGES AND SUBWAYS 139
12.1 GENERAL 139
12.2 COVERS 139
12.3 STAIRWAYS 140
12.4 RAMPS 140
12.5 LANDINGS 141
12.6 CHANGES IN DIRECTION 141
12.7 DIMENSIONS 141
12.8 PARAPETS AND HANDRAILS 142
12.9 DRAINAGE 142
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12.10 LIGHTING 144
12.11 ESCALATORS 144
12.11.1 Provision of Escalators 144
12.11.2 General Requirements 145
12.11.3 External Applications 145
12.11.4 Inspection and Surveillance 146
12.12 FINISHES 146
12.13 WATERPROOFING 147
12.13.1 General Requirements 147
12.13.2 Covers for Footbridges, Covered Walkways and Pedestrian
Subways 147
12.13.3 Pedestrian and Bicycle Subway Barrels 147
12.14 SPECIAL MATERIALS 148
12.15 LIFTS 148
12.15.1 General Requirements 148
12.15.2 Ventilation 150
12.15.3 Surveillance and Emergency Equipment 150
12.16 TACTILE WARNING STRIPS 150
CHAPTER 13 HEADROOM 151
13.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 151
13.2 MEASUREMENT OF HEADROOM 152
13.3 COMPENSATION FOR VERTICAL CURVATURE 152
13.4 COMPENSATION FOR DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURE 152
13.5 COMPENSATION FOR SIGNAL AND OTHER INSTALLATIONS 153
13.6 TRAMWAY AND LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT OVERBRIDGES 153
13.7 RAILWAY OVERBRIDGES 153
13.8 HIGHWAY STRUCTURES ACROSS DRAINAGE CHANNELS 153
CHAPTER 14 STORMWATER DRAINAGE 154
14.1 GENERAL 154
14.2 PIPES AND PIPE LAYOUT 154
14.2.1 Minimum Diameter 154
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14.2.2 Material 154
14.2.3 Layout 155
14.3 MOVEMENT JOINTS 155
14.4 INTAKES 156
14.5 OUTLETS 156
14.6 FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM 156
CHAPTER 15 AESTHETICS 157
15.1 GENERAL 157
15.2 PRINCIPLES AND APPROACH TO AESTHETIC DESIGN 157
15.3 GLOBAL MEASURES 158
15.3.1 Functional Consideration 158
15.3.2 Structural Consideration 159
15.3.3 Design Theme 159
15.3.4 Context and Environmental Aspects 159
15.3.5 Long-Term Appearance 160
15.3.6 Maintenance and Operational Requirements 160
15.4 AESTHETIC ELEMENTS 161
15.4.1 Transparency and Slenderness 161
15.4.2 Form 161
15.4.3 Proportion 162
15.4.4 Scale 163
15.4.5 Expression of Function 163
15.4.6 Unity and Harmony 164
15.4.7 Visual Stability and Balance 164
15.4.8 Rhythm and Rhyme 165
15.4.9 Illusion 166
15.5 DETAILED EFFECTS 167
15.5.1 Light and Shade 167
15.5.2 Texture 167
15.5.3 Colour and Chromatic Design 168
15.5.4 Lighting Highlight 170
15.6 EXTERNAL OR ANCILLARY FEATURES 171
15.6.1 Landscaping 171
15.6.2 Ornamental Features 173
15.6.3 Drainage 174
15.6.4 Existing Structures 174
15.6.5 Noise Barriers and Enclosures 175
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15.6.6 Lighting and Signage 176
15.7 THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE APPEARANCE OF BRIDGES
AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES (ACABAS) 177
CHAPTER 16 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 207
16.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 207
16.1.1 Access for Inspection and Maintenance 207
16.1.2 Maintenance Accommodation 208
16.1.3 Spare Parts 209
16.2 SAFETY CIRCUITS FOR BRIDGES OVER NAVIGABLE CHANNELS 209
16.3 LIMITING ENVELOPE FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND
INSTALLATIONS 209
16.4 PAINTING OF STEELWORK 210
16.5 INCORPORATION OF UTILITY INSTALLATIONS IN HIGHWAY
STRUCTURES 212
16.6 MATERIALS FOR HOLDING DOWN AND FIXING ARRANGEMENTS
ON HIGHWAY STRUCTURES 213
16.7 RUNNING SURFACES OF BRIDGE DECKS 214