Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Systems By Vistasp M Karbhari and Farhad Ansari

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Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Systems By Vistasp M Karbhari and Farhad Ansari

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2.5 Practical issues on field applications 66
2.6 Conclusions 68
2.7 References 68
3 Wireless sensors and networks for structural health
monitoring of civil infrastructure systems 72
R A SWARTZ and J P LYNCH, University of Michigan, USA
3.1 Introduction 72
3.2 Challenges in wireless monitoring 73
3.3 Hardware requirements for wireless sensors 76
3.4 Wireless sensing prototypes 80
3.5 Embedded data processing 90
3.6 Wireless monitoring: case studies 93
3.7 Wireless sensors and cyber-infrastructures 98
3.8 Wireless feedback control 100
3.9 Future trends 107
3.10 Sources of further information and advice 107
3.11 References and further reading 107
4 Synthetic aperture radar and remote sensing
technologies for structural health monitoring of
civil infrastructure systems 113
M SHINOZUKA, University of California, Irvine, USA and
B MANSOURI, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering
and Seismology, Iran
4.1 Introduction 113
4.2 Optical remote sensing: background 114
4.3 Change/damage detection in urban areas 115
4.4 Radar remote sensing: background 125
4.5 Side-looking aperture radar 126
4.6 Synthetic aperture radar 129
4.7 Feasibility of change detection by SAR simulation 136
4.8 Change/damage detection using actual satellite SAR data 141
4.9 Light detection and ranging remote sensing 147
4.10 Acknowledgments 149
4.11 References and further reading 150
5 Magnetoelastic stress sensors for structural health
monitoring of civil infrastructure systems 152
M L WANG, Northeastern University, USA
5.1 Introduction 152
5.2 Stress and magnetization 153
5.3 Magnetoelastic stress sensors 156
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5.4 Effect of temperature on magnetic permeability 161
5.5 Magnetoelastic sensor and measurement unit 163
5.6 Application of magnetoelastic sensor on bridges 164
5.7 Conclusions 171
5.8 References 175
6 Vibration-based damage detection techniques for
structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure
systems 177
V M KARBHARI, University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA and
L S-W LEE, University of the Pacific, USA
6.1 Introduction 177
6.2 Dynamic testing of structures 180
6.3 Overview of vibration-based damage detection 184
6.4 Application to a fiber reinforced polymer rehabilitated
bridge structure 191
6.5 Extension to prediction of service life 206
6.6 Future trends 208
6.7 References 209
7 Operational modal analysis for vibration-based
structural health monitoring of civil structures 213
V M KARBHARI, University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA,
H. GUAN, HDR, USA and C SIKORSKY, California Department
of Transportation, USA
7.1 Introduction 213
7.2 Overview of operational modal analysis 225
7.3 The time domain decomposition technique 229
7.4 The frequency domain natural excitation technique 231
7.5 Application of operational modal analysis techniques to
highway bridges 240
7.6 Future trends 251
7.7 References 256
8 Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring
of civil infrastructure systems 260
F ANSARI, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
8.1 History 260
8.2 Fiber optic sensors 262
8.3 White light interferometric sensors 266
8.4 Strain optic law and gage factors 268
8.5 Multiplexing and distributed sensing issues 270
8.6 Applications 275
Contents vii
8.7 Monitoring of bridge cables 276
8.8 Monitoring of cracks 276
8.9 Conclusions 280
8.10 References 280
9 Data management and signal processing for
structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure
systems 283
D K MCNEILL, University of Manitoba, Canada
9.1 Introduction 283
9.2 Data collection and on-site data management 286
9.3 Issues in data communication 291
9.4 Effective storage of structural health monitoring data 295
9.5 Structural health monitoring measurement processing 298
9.6 Future trends 303
9.7 Sources of further information and advice 303
9.8 References 304
10 Statistical pattern recognition and damage detection
in structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure
systems 305
K WORDEN, G MANSON and S RIPPENGILL, University of Sheffield,
UK
10.1 Introduction 305
10.2 Case study one: an acoustic emission experiment 308
10.3 Analysis and classification of the AE data 310
10.4 Case study two: damage location on an aircraft wing 322
10.5 Analysis of the aircraft wing data 328
10.6 Discussion and conclusions 333
10.7 Acknowledgements 334
10.8 References and further reading 334
Part II Applications of structural health monitoring in
civil infrastructure systems
11 Structural health monitoring of bridges: general
issues and applications 339
D INAUDI, SMARTEC SA, Switzerland
11.1 Introduction: bridges and cars 339
11.2 Integrated structural health monitoring systems 340
11.3 Designing and implementing a structural health
monitoring system 346
viii Contents
11.4 Bridge monitoring 350
11.5 Application examples 351
11.6 Conclusions 366
11.7 Future trends 367
11.8 Sources of further information and advice 368
11.9 References 369
12 Structural health monitoring of cable-supported
bridges in Hong Kong 371
K Y WONG, Highways Department, Hong Kong and Y Q NI,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
12.1 Introduction 371
12.2 Scope of structural health monitoring system 372
12.3 Modular architecture of structural health monitoring system 373
12.4 Sensory system 373
12.5 Data acquisition and transmission system 382
12.6 Data processing and control system 385
12.7 Structural health evaluation system 386
12.8 Structural health data management system 393
12.9 Inspection and maintenance system 396
12.10 Operation of wind and structural health monitoring system 396
12.11 Application of wind and structural health monitoring system 396
12.12 Conclusions 397
12.13 Acknowledgements 401
12.14 References 409
13 Structural health monitoring of historic buildings 412
A DE STEFANO, Turin Polytechnic, Italy and P CLEMENTE, ENEA, Italy
13.1 Introduction 412
13.2 Inspection techniques 413
13.3 Dynamic testing of ancient masonry buildings 416
13.4 The Holy Shroud Chapel in Turin (Italy) 424
13.5 Conclusions 432
13.6 Acknowledgments 433
13.7 References and bibliography 433
14 Structural health monitoring research in Europe:
trends and applications 435
W R HABEL, BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and
Testing, Germany
14.1 Structural health monitoring in Europe 435
14.2 Survey of European structural health monitoring networks
and events 437
Contents ix
14.3 Main centres with structural health monitoring activities
in European countries 439
14.4 Selected examples of structural health monitoring projects
in Europe 443
14.5 Future trends 457
14.6 References 460
15 Structural health monitoring research in China:
trends and applications 463
J OU, Dalian University of Technology, China and Harbin Institute
of Technology, China and H LI, Harbin Institute of Technology,
China
15.1 Fiber optic sensing technology 463
15.2 Wireless sensors and sensor networks 471
15.3 Smart cement-based strain gauge 473
15.4 Applications: a structural health monitoring system for an
offshore platform 481
15.5 Applications: the National Aquatic Center for the Olympic
Games (‘water cube’) 494
15.6 Applications: the Harbin Songhua River Bridge 503
15.7 Conclusions 514
15.8 Sources of further information and advice 515
15.9 Acknowledgements 515
15.10 References 516
Index 517
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