Pages 231
Views 534
Size 26.8 MiB
Downloads 43



The need for this textbook arose out of the author’s experience whilst
co-ordinating the optional subject ‘Railway Engineering Concepts’ for
the Intercollegiate MSc Course in Transport run jointly by Imperial College
and University College, London University.
The stated objective of this optional subject is;
‘To develop an understanding of the engineering concepts
involved, for all disciplines, in the planning, design, construction,
equipping, maintenance and renewal of all types of railway.’
The author quickly discovered that there are many textbooks which
give detailed information on various aspects of railway engineering, usually
confined to one or two main disciplines, but none that give a general
‘broad brush’ approach to the subject as a whole.
This textbook is designed to fill this gap, not only for the student on
this or similar courses but to be a useful reference book to all who need to
expand their knowledge in this field to cover a wide spectrum.
The author wishes to acknowledge extensive help he has received from
many practicing engineers and in particular those who regularly have
contributed lectures on this subject to students on the London University


1. Introduction
1.1 Early beginnings
1.2 Development and diversification
1.3 The customer
1.4 The operator
1.5 Overall planning
1.6 Choice of route and level
1.7 Resources required
2. Station Layout
2.1 The customer and the design process
2.2 The need for standards
2.3 Objectives of station planning
2.4 Concept of speed and flow
2.5 Consideration of time
2.6 Planning normal operation
2.7 Demand Matrix
2.8 Capacity requirements
2.9 Ticket halls
2.10 Access and interchange
xiv Practical Railway Engineering
2.11 Stairs, escalators and lifts
2.12 Platforms
2.13 Footbridges and subways
2.14 Station canopies
2.15 Access for the disabled
2.16 The ‘Downgraded’ station
2.17 Planning for hazards
2.18 Staff accommodation
2.19 Designing for maintenance
3. Rolling Stock
3.1 Definition of railway rolling stock
3.2 Range of rolling stock
3.3 Evolution of steam
3.4 Advent of electric traction
3.5 Development of electric traction
3.6 Diesel traction
3.7 Evolution of wheel layout
3.8 Changes in locomotive maintenance
3.9 Carriages to modem carbodies
3.10 Carbody structures
3.11 Train performance on main line
3.12 Train performance on metros/light rail
3.13 Freight rolling stock
3.14 Engineering rolling stock
3.15 Manufacturing methods
4. Depots and Workshops
4.1 Proper maintenance of rolling stock
4.2 Maintenance considerations
4.3 Establishing a maintenance regime
4.4 Maintenance management
4.5 Balance between workshops and depots
4.6 Depot siting
4.7 Needs of the Maintainer
4.8 Basic requirements for depots
4.9 Performance indicators and audit 62
5. Track
5.1 Origin and development of railway track
5.2 Basic components
5.3 Track ballast
5.4 Materials for track ballast
5.5 Sleeper functions
5.6 Timber sleepers
5.7 Concrete sleepers (monobloc)
5.8 Twin block concrete sleepers
5.9 Steel sleepers
5.10 Rail fastenings
5.11 Rails
5.12 Rail wear
5.13 Desirability of removing rail joints
5.14 Introduction of track welding
5.15 Shop welding into long rails
5.16 Site welding into CWR
5.17 Rail stressing
5.18 Points, switches and crossings
5.19 Crossing design and manufacture
5.20 Points or turnouts
5.21 Driving, locking and detection
5.22 Conductor rails
5.23 Paved concrete track
5.24 Cast-in sleeper track
5.25 Floating slab track
5.26 Track installation and renewal
5.27 Daydto-day maintenance
6. Earthworks, Drainage and Fencing
6.1 Stability of earthworks
6.2 Short term considerations
6.3 Long term considerations
6.4 Slips
6.5 Detection of movement
6.6 Dealing with embankment slips
6.7 Dealing with cutting slips
6.8 Drainage of the track bed
6.9 Sand blankets
6.10 Side or cess drains
6.1 1 Centre drains
6.12 Drain cleaning
6.13 Ineffective drains
6.14 Railway fencing
7. Bridges and Structures
Early railway structures and materials
Modem welded steelwork
Reinforced concrete structures
Prestressed concrete
Bridge reconstruction
Brick and masonry structures
Examination of structures
Structural maintenance
Strength assessment
Tunnels and Tunnelling
History of tunnelling
Cut- and- cover tunnels
First tunnel shields
Modem tunnel shields
Differing ground conditions
Construction methods
Tunnel linings
Vertical and sloping shafts
Tunnel inspection and maintenance
Electricity as a form of motive power
9.2 Generation of electricity
Practical Railway Engineering
9.3 Railway electrification systems
9.4 The AC system connection of supply
9.5 AC feeder points
9.6 AC overhead equipment
9.7 Earthing on the AC system
9.8 Electrical interference
9.9 DC low voltage systems
9.10 AC power distribution for DC systems
9.1 1 DC power distribution
9.12 Effects of electrification
9.13 Inspection and maintenance
10. Signalling and Train Control
10.1 Early history of signalling
10.2 Modem signalling
10.3 Track circuits
10.4 Point operation, locking and detection
10.5 Interlocking
10.6 Minimum headways
10.7 Home and distant signals
10.8 Subsidiary signals
10.9 Two aspect colour light signalling
10.10 Three aspect colour light signalling
10.1 1 Four aspect colour light signalling
10.12 Transmission based signalling
10.13 Proof of safety and safety standards
11. Systems and Communications
11.1 Getting things done!
11.2 Human processes
11.3 Good feedback
11.4 Interface between operation and engineering
11.5 Interface between operation and the user
11.6 Railway systems pyramid
1 1.7 The railway signalling system
11.8 The public address system
11.9 Telephones and radio
11.10 Closed circuit TV
11.11 Equipment operation and maintenance
12. Lifts, Escalators and Pumps
12.1 Vertical transportation
12.2 Development of early lifts
12.3 Development of escalators
12.4 Passenger flows to and from escalators and/or lifts
12.5 Achievable flow rates for modem lifts
12.6 Flow rates on escalators
12.7 Types of escalators
12.8 Compact type escalator
12.9 Semi-compact type escalators
12.10 Heavy duty public service escalators
12.1 1 Typical HDPS escalator dimensions
12.12 Types of modem lift
12.13 Application of lift types
12.14 Safety risks and human factors
12.15 Inspection and maintenance
12.16 Pumps
13. Ventilation and Draught Relief
13.1 Is ventilation a problem on railways?
13.2 Movement of air
13.3 Deciding on exhaust or pressure
13.4 The ‘piston’ effect
13.5 Design and operation of tunnel fans
13.6 Smoke in tunnels
13.7 Draught relief
13.8 Maintenance and inspection of fans
14. Future Trends
14.1 Engineering ‘full circle’
14.2 The trend towards broader vision
14.3 The trend towards local accountability
14.4 Increasing Information Technology
14.5 Improved interchange between transport modes
14.6 A move towards design for Maintenance
14.7 Trends in comfort standards
15. Conclusion
15.1 Retrospect
15.2 Postscript
Subject Index