PRACTICAL RAILWAY ENGINEERING 2nd Edition Clifford F Bonnett

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PRACTICAL RAILWAY ENGINEERING 2nd Edition Clifford F Bonnett

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Preface

The need for this textbook arose originally in 1994 out of the author’s
experience whilst co-ordinating the optional subject ‘Railway Engineering
Concepts’ for the Intercollegiate MSc Course in Transport run jointly by
Imperial College and University College, London University.
The stated objective of this optional subject is:
‘To develop an understanding of the engineering concepts involved,
for all disciplines, in the planning, design, construction, equipping,
maintenance and renewal of all types of railway.’
The author quickly discovered that there were many textbooks which gave
detailed information on various aspects of railway engineering, usually confined
to one or two main disciples, but none that provided a general ‘broad
brush’ approach to the subject as a whole.
The first edition of this textbook was published in 1996 and was specifically
designed to fill this gap, not only for the student on this or similar
courses, but also to be a useful reference book to all who need to expand
their knowledge in this wide field. The first edition was adopted as a standard
textbook by a number of Universities and Colleges. Although the basic
principles of such a subject do not change over time, some of the details
of the book needed up-dating and this has been the author’s objective in
producing the second edition.
The author wishes to acknowledge extensive help he has received from
many practicing engineers and, in particular, those who regularly have contributed
lectures on this subject to students on the London University
course. In addition thanks are recorded for comments received on the first
edition which have been taken into account in producing the second edition.
One of the main changes in the second edition is the improvement of the
illustrations and the introduction of some colour prints, made possible by
the publishers, which is much appreciated.

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to express his thanks to the Professors, lecturers and
staff of the Centre for Transport Studies of the University of London for
practical help given in the production of this textbook.
In particular he would also wish to record thanks to the following
external lecturers who have assisted with material outside his own railway
practical experience:
Appreciation is also expressed to Paul Walker for general railway advice
and interest during the production of the second edition and in providing a
number of the colour photographs, which are suitably acknowledged in the
figure titles. Thanks are also due to Network Rail, London Underground
Ltd, Docklands Light Railway Ltd, The Science Museum, the Institution of
Railway Signal Engineers and the PermanentWay Institution for assistance
with the gathering of facts, information and illustrations.
I am particularly grateful to Professor Tony Ridley who has been a
great encourager during the writing of both editions and for providing the
Foreword.

Contents

Foreword vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
List of Figures xix
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Early beginnings 1
1.2 Development and diversification 2
1.3 The customer 2
1.4 The operator 3
1.5 Overall planning 3
1.6 Choice of route and level 4
1.7 Resources required 5
2. Station Layout 7
2.1 The customer and the design process 7
2.2 The need for standards 8
2.3 The objectives in station planning 9
2.4 The concept of speed and flow 10
2.5 The consideration of time 10
2.6 Planning for normal operation 11
2.7 The demand matrix 12
2.8 Capacity requirements 15
2.9 Ticket halls 15
2.10 Access and interchange 18
xiii
xiv Practical Railway Engineering
2.11 Stairs, escalators and lifts 19
2.12 Platforms 20
2.13 Footbridges and subways 21
2.14 Station canopies 22
2.15 Access for disabled and mobility impaired passengers 22
2.16 The ‘downgraded’ station 24
2.17 Planning for hazards 25
2.18 Staff accommodation 25
2.19 Designing for maintenance 26
3. Rolling Stock 27
3.1 The definition of railway rolling stock 27
3.2 The range of railway rolling stock 28
3.3 The evolution of steam motive power 29
3.4 The advent of electric traction 32
3.5 Development of electric traction 33
3.6 Diesel traction 35
3.7 Evolution of wheel layout 36
3.8 Changes in locomotive maintenance practices 37
3.9 From passenger ‘carriages’ to the modern carbodies 38
3.10 Carbody structures 39
3.11 Main line train performance issues 41
3.12 Train performance issues on metros and light rail 41
3.13 Freight rolling stock 43
3.14 Specialised engineering rolling stock 44
3.15 Manufacturing methods 46
4. Depots and Workshops 47
4.1 Proper maintenance of rolling stock 47
4.2 Rolling stock maintenance considerations 48
4.3 Establishing a maintenance regime 48
4.4 Maintenance management 49
4.5 Balance between workshops and depots 50
4.6 Depot siting 50
4.7 The needs of the maintainer 52
4.8 Basic requirements for depots 53
4.9 Performance indicators and audit 55
Contents xv
5. Track 57
5.1 The origin and development of railway track 57
5.2 Basic components of track 58
5.3 Track ballast 59
5.4 Materials for track ballast 60
5.5 Sleeper functions 60
5.6 Timber sleepers 61
5.7 Prestressed concrete sleepers (monobloc) 62
5.8 Twin block sleepers 64
5.9 Steel sleepers 64
5.10 Rail fastenings, baseplates and pads 65
5.11 Rails 67
5.12 Rail wear 68
5.13 Desirability of removing rail joints 70
5.14 The introduction of track welding 70
5.15 Shop welding to produce long rails 71
5.16 Site welding to produce CWR 72
5.17 Stressing or ‘locking-up’ of CWR 73
5.18 Points, switches and crossings 74
5.19 Crossing design and manufacture 75
5.20 Points or turnouts 76
5.21 Driving, locking and detection of points 76
5.22 Conductor rails and components 77
5.23 Paved concrete track 78
5.24 Cast-in precast sleeper track 78
5.25 Floating slab track 79
5.26 Track installation and renewal 79
5.27 Day-to-day maintenance of track 79
6. Earthworks, Drainage and Fencing 83
6.1 Stability of earthworks 83
6.2 Short term considerations 84
6.3 Long term considerations 84
6.4 Slips 85
6.5 Detection of movement of earthworks 85
6.6 Dealing with embankment slips 86
6.7 Dealing with cutting slips 88
6.8 Drainage of the trackbed 89
xvi Practical Railway Engineering
6.9 Sand blankets 90
6.10 Side or ‘cess’ drains 91
6.11 Centre drains 92
6.12 Drain cleaning 92
6.13 Ineffective drains 93
6.14 Railway fencing 94
7. Bridges and Structures 95
7.1 Early railway structures and materials 95
7.2 Modern welded steelwork 97
7.3 Reinforced concrete structures 100
7.4 Prestressed concrete 102
7.5 Bridge reconstruction 104
7.6 Brick and masonry structures 106
7.7 Examination of structures 108
7.8 Structural maintenance 109
7.9 Strength assessment 110
8. Tunnels and Tunnelling 113
8.1 The history of tunnelling 113
8.2 ‘Cut-and-cover’ tunnels 114
8.3 The first tunnel shields 114
8.4 Modern tunnel shields 115
8.5 Differing ground conditions 116
8.6 Construction methods 117
8.7 Tunnel linings 118
8.8 Vertical and sloping shafts 119
8.9 Tunnel inspection and maintenance 120
9. Electrification 121
9.1 Electricity as a form of motive power 121
9.2 Generation of electricity 122
9.3 Railway electrification systems 122
9.4 The AC system connection of supply 123
9.5 The AC system feeder points 124
9.6 AC overhead equipment 125
9.7 Earthing on the AC system 126
9.8 Electrical interference 126
9.9 DC low voltage systems 127
Contents xvii
9.10 AC power distribution for DC systems 127
9.11 DC power distribution 128
9.12 The effects of electrification 129
9.13 Inspection and maintenance 129
10. Signalling and Train Control 131
10.1 The early history of railway signalling 131
10.2 Modern signalling principles 133
10.3 Track circuits 134
10.4 Point operation, locking and detection 134
10.5 Interlocking 135
10.6 Minimum headways 136
10.7 Home and distant signals 137
10.8 Subsidiary signals 137
10.9 Two aspect colour light signalling 138
10.10 Three aspect colour light signalling 139
10.11 Four aspect colour light signalling 140
10.12 Transmission based signalling 141
10.13 Proof of safety and safety standards 142
10.14 Protection against trains passing signals at danger 143
10.15 Signal protection at level crossings 145
11. Systems and Communications 147
11.1 Getting things done! 147
11.2 Human processes 148
11.3 Good feedback 148
11.4 Interface between operation and engineering 149
11.5 Interface between operator and user 150
11.6 The railway systems pyramid 150
11.7 The railway signalling system 151
11.8 The public address and information systems 152
11.9 Telephones and radio 154
11.10 Closed circuit television (CCTV) 156
11.11 Equipment operation and system maintenance 156
12. Lifts, Escalators and Pumps 159
12.1 Vertical transportation 159
12.2 The development of early lifts 159
12.3 The development of escalators 160
xviii Practical Railway Engineering
12.4 Passenger flow to and from escalators and lifts 161
12.5 Achievable flow rates for modern lifts 162
12.6 Flow rates on escalators 162
12.7 Types of escalators 163
12.8 Compact type escalators 164
12.9 Semi-compact type escalators 164
12.10 Heavy duty public service escalators 165
12.11 Typical HDPS escalator dimensions 166
12.12 Types of modern lift 166
12.13 Application of lift types 167
12.14 Safety risks and human factors 168
12.15 Inspection and maintenance 169
12.16 Pumps 170
13. Ventilation and Draught Relief 173
13.1 Is ventilation a problem on railways? 173
13.2 Movement of air 174
13.3 Deciding on exhaust or pressure 175
13.4 The ‘piston’ effect of trains on fans 176
13.5 Design and operation of tunnel fans 176
13.6 Smoke in tunnels 176
13.7 Draught relief 178
13.8 Maintenance and inspection of fans 179
13.9 Air conditioning 179
14. Future Trends 181
14.1 The engineering ‘full circle’ 181
14.2 The trend towards broader vision 183
14.3 The trend towards local accountability 183
14.4 Increasing use of information technology 184
14.5 Improved interchange between transport modes 184
14.6 A move towards designing for maintenance 185
14.7 Trends in comfort standards 185
15. Conclusion 187
15.1 Retrospect 187
15.2 Postscript 188
Subject Index 189
List of Figures
1.1 Early railway construction. 2
1.2 Underground railway construction at Blackfriars, London :
1871. 4
1.3 Platforms and roof at Paddington, London. 5
2.1 Typical country station (photo by Paul Walker). 8
2.2 Matrix of passenger flows at Victoria Station, London. 12
2.3 Typical sub-surface booking hall. 12
2.4 Congestion at the foot of an ascending escalator. 13
2.5 Pedestrian flows during crowding. 14
2.6 Different categories of passengers on a concourse. 17
2.7 Passenger movement on a platform during ‘dwell time’. 17
2.8 Lift for the disabled, Docklands Light Railway. 23
3.1 Early flanged wheels on iron rails. 28
3.2 The age of steam (photo by Paul Walker). 29
3.3 Euston Square Station showing ventilation openings. 32
3.4 An early Underground DC electric locomotive. 33
3.5 Electric multiple unit underground train. 34
3.6 Old DC electric multiple unit stock with ‘slam’ doors (photo
by Paul Walker). 35
3.7 Channel tunnel ‘Eurostar’ electric stock which can run on
either AC or DC. 36
3.8 Diesel-electric locomotive (photo by Paul Walker). 37
3.9 Diesel multiple unit stock (photo by Paul Walker). 39
3.10 Interior of open plan passenger coach (photo by Paul Walker). 40
3.11 Docklands Light Railway stock. 42
3.12 Interior of DLR car. 44
3.13 Ballast tamping machine. 45
xix
xx Practical Railway Engineering
4.1 Diesel-electric maintenance depot. 51
4.2 Typical Metro depot. 52
4.3 Light rail depot. 53
4.4 Train washing machine. 54
5.1 Bullhead section rail and chair with side wear gauge. 58
5.2 Recommended ballast depths. 59
5.3 Individual renewal of timber sleepers. 62
5.4 Prestressed concrete sleepers, fastenings and rail weld. 63
5.5 Flat Bottom (FB) rail and Pandrol clip fastening. 66
5.6 The Pandrol clip and baseplate on timber sleeper (photo by
Paul Walker). 67
5.7 Continuous welded track. 72
5.8 A crossover layout in BH rail. 73
5.9 Components of points or turnouts. 77
5.10 Mechanised track laying. 80
5.11 Daytime track maintenance gang at work. 80
6.1 Drainage catchpit. 84
6.2 Counterforts and Herring-bone drainage. 88
6.3 A sump clearing pump train. 91
6.4 Precast concrete units forming ‘crib’ retaining wall. 92
7.1 Laminated timber arched bridge at Lancaster. 96
7.2 Hundred year old cast iron arches at Kilburn. 96
7.3 Forth railway bridge — early rivetted steel (photo by Paul
Walker). 97
7.4 Model of welded truss railway bridge. 98
7.5 Reinforced concrete station roof portal frame. 99
7.6 Welded tubular station roof at Waterloo. 100
7.7 Railway bridge reconstructed using pretensioned prestressed
concrete beams. 103
7.8 Concrete segmental box girder units. 104
7.9 100 tonne rolling-in trolley. 106
7.10 Arched iron roof and lattice footbridge at Kings Cross (photo
by Paul Walker). 107
7.11 Stone arched underbridge still giving service after more than
100 years (photo by Paul Walker). 107
8.1 Early ‘cut-and-cover’ construction in London. 114
List of Figures xxi
8.2 Modern soft ground tunnel shield. 116
8.3 Bored piles used as cut-and-cover tunnel support. 117
8.4 Concrete lined vertical shaft. 119
9.1 Diagram of typical 25 kV feeding arrangement. 124
9.2 Modern 25 kV overhead equipment. 125
9.3 AC and DC distribution on a DC system. 127
10.1 Semaphore signals (photo by Paul Walker). 132
10.2 The DC track circuit. 134
10.3 Diagram showing point locking and detection. 135
10.4 Headway distance and time. 136
10.5 Former manual signal box (photo by Paul Walker). 138
10.6 Three aspect electrical signalling at junction. 139
10.7 Four aspect signalling. 140
10.8 Train protection warning system (photo by Paul Walker). 144
10.9 Signals at level crossing (photo by Paul Walker). 144
11.1 Open and closed loop systems. 149
11.2 The systems pyramid. 151
11.3 Dot matrix departure indicator. 153
12.1 An early underground escalator. 160
12.2 A modern railway design using escalators and lifts. 163
12.3 Typical escalator dimensions. 166
12.4 Hydraulic lift for passengers at footbridge. 167
12.5 Details at top of passenger lift. 169
12.6 Details at bottom of passenger lift. 170