Practical Electronics for Inventors Fourth Edition By Paul Scherz and Simon Monk

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Practical Electronics for Inventors Fourth Edition By Paul Scherz and Simon Monk

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CONTENTS

Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxv
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Electronics 1
CHAPTER 2 Theory 5
2.1 Theory of Electronics 5
2.2 Electric Current 6
2.2.1 Currents in Perspective 9
2.3 Voltage 9
2.3.1 The Mechanisms of Voltage 11
2.3.2 Definition of Volt and Generalized Power Law 14
2.3.3 Combining Batteries 15
2.3.4 Other Voltage Sources 16
2.3.5 Water Analogies 17
2.4 A Microscopic View of Conduction (for Those
Who Are Interested) 18
2.4.1 Applying a Voltage 21
2.5 Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity 23
2.5.1 How the Shape of a Conductor Affects Resistance 24
2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity 25
2.6 Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors 28
2.7 Heat and Power 31
2.8 Thermal Heat Conduction and Thermal Resistance 34
2.8.1 Importance of Heat Production 37
2.9 Wire Gauges 39
2.10 Grounds 40
2.10.1 Earth Ground 42
2.10.2 Different Types of Ground Symbols 45
2.10.3 Loose Ends on Grounding 47
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2.11 Electric Circuits 49
2.12 Ohm’s Law and Resistors 50
2.12.1 Resistor Power Ratings 51
2.12.2 Resistors in Parallel 52
2.12.3 Resistors in Series 55
2.12.4 Reducing a Complex Resistor Network 58
2.12.5 Multiple Voltage Dividers 61
2.13 Voltage and Current Sources 62
2.14 Measuring Voltage, Current, and Resistance 65
2.15 Combining Batteries 67
2.16 Open and Short Circuits 68
2.17 Kirchhoff’s Laws 69
2.18 Superposition Theorem 74
2.19 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 76
2.19.1 Thevenin’s Theorem 76
2.19.2 Norton’s Theorem 77
2.20 AC Circuits 80
2.20.1 Generating AC 81
2.20.2 Water Analogy of AC 82
2.20.3 Pulsating DC 82
2.20.4 Combining Sinusoidal Sources 83
2.20.5 AC Waveforms 84
2.20.6 Describing an AC Waveform 84
2.20.7 Frequency and Period 85
2.20.8 Phase 86
2.21 AC and Resistors, RMS Voltage, and Current 87
2.22 Mains Power 92
2.23 Capacitors 94
2.23.1 Determining Capacitance 97
2.23.2 Commercial Capacitors 99
2.23.3 Voltage Rating and Dielectric Breakdown 99
2.23.4 Maxwell’s Displacement Current 100
2.23.5 Charge-Based
Model of Current
Through a Capacitor 102
2.23.6 Capacitor Water Analogy 104
2.23.7 Energy in a Capacitor 105
2.23.8 RC Time Constant 105
2.23.9 Stray Capacitance 108
2.23.10 Capacitors in Parallel 108
2.23.11 Capacitors in Series 109
2.23.12 Alternating Current in a Capacitor 110
2.23.13 Capacitive Reactance 111
2.23.14 Capacitive Divider 113
2.23.15 Quality Factor 113
2.24 Inductors 113
2.24.1 Electromagnetism 114
2.24.2 Magnetic Fields and Their Influence 117
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2.24.3 Self-Inductance
120
2.24.4 Inductors 121
2.24.5 Inductor Water Analogy 127
2.24.6 Inductor Equations 128
2.24.7 Energy Within an Inductor 133
2.24.8 Inductor Cores 133
2.24.9 Understanding the Inductor Equations 138
2.24.10 Energizing RL Circuit 142
2.24.11 Deenergizing RL Circuit 144
2.24.12 Voltage Spikes Due to Switching 147
2.24.13 Straight-Wire
Inductance 147
2.24.14 Mutual Inductance and Magnetic Coupling 148
2.24.15 Unwanted Coupling: Spikes, Lightning,
and Other Pulses 149
2.24.16 Inductors in Series and Parallel 149
2.24.17 Alternating Current and Inductors 150
2.24.18 Inductive Reactance 151
2.24.19 Nonideal Inductor Model 153
2.24.20 Quality Factor 154
2.24.21 Inductor Applications 155
2.25 Modeling Complex Circuits 155
2.26 Complex Numbers 159
2.27 Circuit with Sinusoidal Sources 164
2.27.1 Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with
Complex Impedances 165
2.27.2 Sinusoidal Voltage Source in Complex Notation 167
2.27.3 Odd Phenomena in Reactive Circuits 175
2.28 Power in AC Circuits (Apparent Power,
Real Power, Reactive Power) 176
2.28.1 Power Factor 178
2.29 Thevenin’s Theorem in AC Form 186
2.30 Resonant Circuits 188
2.30.1 Resonance in RLC Circuits 191
2.30.2 Q (Quality Factor) and Bandwidth 193
2.30.3 Bandwidth 194
2.30.4 Voltage Drop Across Components
in RLC Resonant Circuit 195
2.30.5 Capacitor Losses 195
2.30.6 Parallel-Resonant
Circuits 196
2.30.7 The Q of Loaded Circuits 202
2.31 Lecture on Decibels 204
2.31.1 Alternative Decibel Representations 207
2.32 Input and Output Impedance 207
2.32.1 Input Impedance 207
2.32.2 Output Impedance 208
2.33 Two-Port Networks and Filters 210
2.33.1 Filters 210
2.33.2 Attenuators 221
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2.34 Transient Circuits 223
2.34.1 Series RLC Circuit 231
2.35 Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources 235
2.35.1 Fourier Series 236
2.36 Nonperiodic Sources 243
2.37 SPICE 245
2.37.1 How SPICE Works 246
2.37.2 Limitations of SPICE and Other Simulators 249
2.37.3 A Simple Simulation Example 249
CHAPTER 3 Basic Electronic Circuit Components 253
3.1 Wires, Cables, and Connectors 253
3.1.1 Wires 253
3.1.2 Cables 256
3.1.3 Connectors 256
3.1.4 Wiring and Connector Symbols 261
3.1.5 High-Frequency
Effects Within
Wires and Cables 262
3.2 Batteries 271
3.2.1 How a Cell Works 272
3.2.2 Primary Batteries 274
3.2.3 Comparing Primary Batteries 275
3.2.4 Secondary Batteries 279
3.2.5 Battery Capacity 287
3.2.6 Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery 289
3.3 Switches 290
3.3.1 How a Switch Works 291
3.3.2 Describing a Switch 291
3.3.3 Kinds of Switches 292
3.3.4 Simple Switch Applications 294
3.4 Relays 295
3.4.1 Specific Kinds of Relays 297
3.4.2 A Few Notes about Relays 298
3.4.3 Some Simple Relay Circuits 299
3.5 Resistors 299
3.5.1 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 301
3.5.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel 302
3.5.3 Reading Resistor Labels 304
3.5.4 Real Resistor Characteristics 306
3.5.5 Types of Resistors 314
3.5.6 Variable Resistors (Rheostats,
Potentiometers, Trimmers) 320
3.5.7 Potentiometer Characteristics 322
3.6 Capacitors 324
3.6.1 Capacitance 326
3.6.2 Capacitors in Parallel 326
3.6.3 Capacitors in Series 327
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3.6.4 RC Time Constant 327
3.6.5 Capacitive Reactance 328
3.6.6 Real Capacitors 329
3.6.7 Capacitor Specifications 329
3.6.8 Types of Capacitors 333
3.6.9 Capacitor Applications 341
3.6.10 Timing and Sample and Hold 347
3.6.11 RC Ripple Filter 348
3.6.12 Arc Suppression 350
3.6.13 Supercapacitor Applications 352
3.6.14 Problems 352
3.7 Inductors 355
3.7.1 Inductance 357
3.7.2 Constructing Inductors 357
3.7.3 Inductors in Series and Parallel 357
3.7.4 RL Time Constant 359
3.7.5 Inductive Reactance 360
3.7.6 Real Inductors 361
3.7.7 Inductor Specifications 361
3.7.8 Types of Inductors 363
3.7.9 Reading Inductor Labels 367
3.7.10 Inductor Applications 369
3.7.11 EMI/EMC Design Tips 373
3.8 Transformers 374
3.8.1 Basic Operations 374
3.8.2 Transformer Construction 385
3.8.3 Autotransformers and Variable Transformers 387
3.8.4 Circuit Isolation and the Isolation Transformer 389
3.8.5 Various Standard and Specialized Transformers 390
3.8.6 Transformer Applications 392
3.9 Fuses and Circuit Breakers 397
3.9.1 Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers 398
CHAPTER 4 Semiconductors 401
4.1 Semiconductor Technology 401
4.1.1 What Is a Semiconductor? 401
4.1.2 Applications of Silicon 406
4.2 Diodes 407
4.2.1 How p-n Junction Diodes Work 407
4.2.2 Diode Water Analogy 409
4.2.3 Kinds of Rectifiers/Diodes 409
4.2.4 Practical Considerations 411
4.2.5 Diode/Rectifier Applications 412
4.2.6 Zener Diodes 420
4.2.7 Zener Diode Applications 423
4.2.8 Varactor Diodes (Variable Capacitance Diodes) 424
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4.2.9 PIN Diodes 426
4.2.10 Microwave Diodes (IMPATT, Gunn, Tunnel, etc.) 426
4.2.11 Problems 427
4.3 Transistors 429
4.3.1 Introduction to Transistors 429
4.3.2 Bipolar Transistors 430
4.3.3 Junction Field-Effect
Transistors 449
4.3.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect
Transistors 459
4.3.5 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) 468
4.3.6 Unijunction Transistors 468
4.4 Thyristors 472
4.4.1 Introduction 472
4.4.2 Silicon-Controlled
Rectifiers 473
4.4.3 Silicon-Controlled
Switches 476
4.4.4 Triacs 477
4.4.5 Four-Layer
Diodes and Diacs 480
4.5 Transient Voltage Suppressors 481
4.5.1 Lecture on Transients 482
4.5.2 Devices Used to Suppress Transients 483
4.6 Integrated Circuits 491
4.6.1 IC Packages 492
CHAPTER 5 Optoelectronics 495
5.1 A Little Lecture on Photons 495
5.2 Lamps 497
5.3 Light-Emitting
Diodes 499
5.3.1 How an LED Works 500
5.3.2 Kinds of LEDs 501
5.3.3 More on LEDs 502
5.3.4 LED Applications 505
5.3.5 Laser Diodes 506
5.4 Photoresistors 512
5.4.1 How a Photoresistor Works 512
5.4.2 Technical Stuff 513
5.4.3 Applications 513
5.5 Photodiodes 514
5.5.1 How a Photodiode Works 514
5.5.2 Basic Operations 515
5.5.3 Kinds of Photodiodes 515
5.6 Solar Cells 516
5.6.1 Basic Operations 517
5.7 Phototransistors 517
5.7.1 How a Phototransistor Works 518
5.7.2 Basic Configurations 518
5.7.3 Kinds of Phototransistors 519
5.7.4 Technical Stuff 519
5.7.5 Applications 520
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5.8 Photothyristors 521
5.8.1 How LASCRs Work 521
5.8.2 Basic Operation 521
5.9 Optoisolators 522
5.9.1 Integrated Optoisolators 522
5.9.2 Applications 523
5.10 Optical Fiber 524
CHAPTER 6 Sensors 525
6.1 General Principals 525
6.1.1 Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 525
6.1.2 The Observer Effect 526
6.1.3 Calibration 526
6.2 Temperature 528
6.2.1 Thermistors 529
6.2.2 Thermocouples 531
6.2.3 Resistive Temperature Detectors 532
6.2.4 Analog Output Thermometer ICs 532
6.2.5 Digital Thermometer ICs 533
6.2.6 Infrared Thermometers/Pyrometers 534
6.2.7 Summary 534
6.3 Proximity and Touch 535
6.3.1 Touch Screens 535
6.3.2 Ultrasonic Distance 536
6.3.3 Optical Distance 537
6.3.4 Capacitive Sensors 539
6.3.5 Summary 539
6.4 Movement, Force, and Pressure 540
6.4.1 Passive Infrared 540
6.4.2 Acceleration 541
6.4.3 Rotation 542
6.4.4 Flow 543
6.4.5 Force 544
6.4.6 Tilt 545
6.4.7 Vibration and Mechanical Shock 545
6.4.8 Pressure 545
6.5 Chemical 546
6.5.1 Smoke 546
6.5.2 Gas 546
6.5.3 Humidity 547
6.6 Light, Radiation, Magnetism, and Sound 547
6.6.1 Light 547
6.6.2 Ionizing Radiation 547
6.6.3 Magnetic Fields 548
6.6.4 Sound 549
6.7 GPS 549
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CHAPTER 7 Hands-on Electronics 551
7.1 Safety 551
7.1.1 Lecture on Safety 551
7.1.2 Damaging Components with Electrostatic
Discharge 555
7.1.3 Component Handling Precautions 555
7.2 Constructing Circuits 556
7.2.1 Drawing a Circuit Schematic 556
7.2.2 A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs 558
7.2.3 Making a Prototype of Your Circuit 558
7.2.4 The Final Circuit 559
7.2.5 Making a PCB 562
7.2.6 Special Pieces of Hardware Used in
Circuit Construction 567
7.2.7 Soldering 568
7.2.8 Desoldering 569
7.2.9 Enclosing the Circuit 569
7.2.10 Useful Items to Keep Handy 570
7.2.11 Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build 570
7.3 Multimeters 571
7.3.1 Basic Operation 572
7.3.2 How Analog VOMs Work 573
7.3.3 How Digital Multimeters Work 574
7.3.4 A Note on Measurement Errors 574
7.4 Oscilloscopes 575
7.4.1 How Scopes Work 576
7.4.2 Interior Circuitry of a Scope 578
7.4.3 Aiming the Beam 579
7.4.4 Scope Usage 580
7.4.5 What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do 581
7.4.6 Measuring Things with Scopes 586
7.4.7 Scope Applications 590
7.4.8 Measuring Impedances 592
7.5 The Electronics Laboratory 594
7.5.1 Work Area 594
7.5.2 Test Equipment 595
7.5.3 Multimeters 596
7.5.4 DC Power Supplies 597
7.5.5 Oscilloscope 598
7.5.6 Oscilloscope Probes 600
7.5.7 General-Purpose
Function Generator 607
7.5.8 Frequency Counter 608
7.5.9 Computer 608
7.5.10 Miscellaneous Test Equipment 609
7.5.11 Multifunction PC Instruments 610
7.5.12 Isolation Transformers 611
7.5.13 Variable Transformers, or Variacs 613
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7.5.14 Substitution Boxes 614
7.5.15 Test Cables, Connectors, and Adapters 616
7.5.16 Soldering Equipment 618
7.5.17 Prototyping Boards 621
7.5.18 Hand Tools 622
7.5.19 Wires, Cables, Hardware, and Chemicals 624
7.5.20 Electronics Catalogs 626
7.5.21 Recommended Electronics Parts 627
7.5.22 Electronic CAD Programs 630
7.5.23 Building Your Own Workbench 631
CHAPTER 8 Operational Amplifiers 635
8.1 Operational Amplifier Water Analogy 636
8.2 How Op Amps Work (The “Cop-Out”
Explanation) 637
8.3 Theory 638
8.4 Negative Feedback 639
8.5 Positive Feedback 644
8.6 Real Kinds of Op Amps 645
8.7 Op Amp Specifications 647
8.8 Powering Op Amps 649
8.9 Some Practical Notes 650
8.10 Voltage and Current Offset Compensation 651
8.11 Frequency Compensation 652
8.12 Comparators 652
8.13 Comparators with Hysteresis 654
8.13.1 Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis 654
8.13.2 Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis 655
8.14 Using Single-Supply
Comparators 656
8.15 Window Comparator 656
8.16 Voltage-Level
Indicator 657
8.17 Instrumentation Amplifiers 657
8.18 Applications 658
CHAPTER 9 Filters 663
9.1 Things to Know Before You Start Designing Filters 664
9.2 Basic Filters 665
9.3 Passive Low-Pass
Filter Design 666
9.4 A Note on Filter Types 670
9.5 Passive High-Pass
Filter Design 670
9.6 Passive Bandpass Filter Design 672
9.7 Passive Notch Filter Design 674
9.8 Active Filter Design 675
9.8.1 Active Low-Pass
Filter Example 676
9.8.2 Active High-Pass
Filter Example 677
9.8.3 Active Bandpass Filters 678
9.8.4 Active Notch Filters 680
9.9 Integrated Filter Circuits 681
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CHAPTER 10 Oscillators and Timers 683
10.1 RC Relaxation Oscillators 684
10.2 The 555 Timer IC 686
10.2.1 How a 555 Works (Astable Operation) 687
10.2.2 Basic Astable Operation 688
10.2.3 How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation) 689
10.2.4 Basic Monostable Operation 690
10.2.5 Some Important Notes about 555 Timers 690
10.2.6 Simple 555 Applications 691
10.3 Voltage-Controlled
Oscillators 692
10.4 Wien-Bridge
and Twin-T
Oscillators 693
10.5 LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators) 693
10.6 Crystal Oscillators 696
10.7 Microcontroller Oscillators 698
CHAPTER 11 Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies 699
11.1 Voltage-Regulator
ICs 701
11.1.1 Fixed-Regulator ICs 701
11.1.2 Adjustable-Regulator ICs 702
11.1.3 Regulator Specifications 702
11.2 A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications 702
11.3 The Transformer 703
11.4 Rectifier Packages 703
11.5 A Few Simple Power Supplies 704
11.6 Technical Points about Ripple Reduction 707
11.7 Loose Ends 709
11.8 Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers) 710
11.9 Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) 713
11.10 Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages 714
11.11 Power Supply Construction 716
CHAPTER 12 Digital Electronics 717
12.1 The Basics of Digital Electronics 717
12.1.1 Digital Logic States 717
12.1.2 Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics 718
12.1.3 Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial
Transmission 725
12.2 Logic Gates 726
12.2.1 Multiple-Input Logic Gates 727
12.2.2 Digital Logic Gate ICs 727
12.2.3 Applications for a Single Logic Gate 728
12.2.4 Combinational Logic 730
12.2.5 Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps) 738
12.3 Combinational Devices 740
12.3.1 Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and
Bilateral Switches 741
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12.3.2 Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders 743
12.3.3 Encoders and Code Converters 746
12.3.4 Binary Adders 749
12.3.5 Binary Adder/Subtractor 751
12.3.6 Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs 751
12.3.7 A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend
Toward Microcontroller Control 752
12.4 Logic Families 753
12.4.1 CMOS Family of ICs 754
12.4.2 I/O Voltages and Noise Margins 755
12.4.3 Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays 756
12.5 Powering and Testing Logic ICs 756
12.5.1 Power Supply Decoupling 756
12.5.2 Unused Inputs 757
12.5.3 Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers 757
12.6 Sequential Logic 758
12.6.1 SR Flip-Flops 759
12.6.2 SR Flip-Flop ICs 763
12.6.3 D-Type Flip-Flops 764
12.6.4 Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops 768
12.6.5 JK Flip-Flops 769
12.6.6 Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops 773
12.6.7 Digital Clock Generators and
Single-Pulse Generators 774
12.6.8 Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits 777
12.6.9 Pullup and Pulldown Resistors 779
12.7 Counter ICs 780
12.7.1 Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs 780
12.7.2 Synchronous Counter ICs 782
12.7.3 A Note on Counters with Displays 787
12.8 Shift Registers 789
12.8.1 Serial-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers 789
12.8.2 Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers 790
12.8.3 Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Registers 790
12.8.4 Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer) 791
12.8.5 Johnson Shift Counter 791
12.8.6 Shift Register ICs 792
12.8.7 Simple Shift Register Applications 796
12.9 Analog/Digital Interfacing 799
12.9.1 Triggering Simple Logic Responses
from Analog Signals 799
12.9.2 Using Logic to Drive External Loads 800
12.9.3 Analog Switches 802
12.9.4 Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer 802
12.9.5 Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog
Conversion 803
12.9.6 Analog-to-Digital Converters 811
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12.10 Displays 813
12.10.1 LED Displays 813
12.10.2 Liquid-Crystal Displays 815
12.11 Memory Devices 828
12.11.1 Read-Only Memory 829
12.11.2 Simple ROM Made Using Diodes 830
12.11.3 Memory Size and Organization 830
12.11.4 Simple Programmable ROM 831
12.11.5 ROM Devices 832
12.11.6 RAM 836
CHAPTER 13 Microcontrollers 843
13.1 Basic Structure of a Microcontroller 844
13.2 Example Microcontrollers 844
13.2.1 The ATtiny85 Microcontroller 845
13.2.2 The PIC16Cx Microcontrollers 849
13.2.3 32-Bit Microcontrollers 862
13.2.4 Digital Signal Processing 862
13.3 Evaluation/Development Boards 863
13.4 Arduino 864
13.4.1 A Tour of Arduino 864
13.4.2 The Arduino IDE 865
13.4.3 Arduino Board Models 865
13.4.4 Shields 866
13.4.5 The Arduino C Library 868
13.4.6 Arduino Example Project 870
13.4.7 Taking the Arduino Offboard 872
13.5 Interfacing with Microcontrollers 874
13.5.1 Switches 874
13.5.2 Analog Inputs 878
13.5.3 High-Power Digital Outputs 879
13.5.4 Sound Interfaces 883
13.5.5 Serial Interfaces 884
13.5.6 Level Conversion 892
13.5.7 LED Display Interfaces 892
CHAPTER 14 Programmable Logic 897
14.1 Programmable Logic 898
14.2 FPGAs 899
14.3 ISE and the Elbert V2 900
14.3.1 Installing ISE 901
14.4 The Elbert 2 Board 901
14.4.1 Installing the Elbert Software 902
14.5 Downloads 903
14.6 Drawing Your FPGA Logic Design 903
14.6.1 Example 1: A Data Selector 903
14.6.2 Example 2: A 4-bit Ripple Counter 912
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14.7 Verilog 914
14.7.1 Modules 915
14.7.2 Wires, Registers, and Busses 915
14.7.3 Parallel Execution 915
14.7.4 Number Format 915
14.8 Describing Your FPGA Design in Verilog 916
14.8.1 A Data Selector in Verilog 916
14.8.2 A Ripple Counter in Verilog 919
14.9 Modular Design 920
14.9.1 Counter/Decoder Example 921
14.9.2 Multiplexed 7-Segment Counter Example 924
14.9.3 Parameterized Modules 928
14.10 Simulation 928
14.11 VHDL 931
CHAPTER 15 Motors 933
15.1 DC Continuous Motors 933
15.2 Speed Control of DC Motors 934
15.3 Directional Control of DC Motors 935
15.4 RC Servos 936
15.5 Stepper Motors 938
15.6 Kinds of Stepper Motors 939
15.7 Driving Stepper Motors 941
15.8 Controlling the Driver with a Translator 943
15.9 A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors 945
CHAPTER 16 Audio Electronics 947
16.1 A Little Lecture on Sound 947
16.2 Microphones 949
16.3 Microphone Specifications 950
16.4 Audio Amplifiers 951
16.4.1 Inverting Amplifier 951
16.4.2 Noninverting Amplifier 952
16.4.3 Digital Amplifiers 952
16.4.4 Reducing Hum in Audio Amplifiers 954
16.5 Preamplifiers 954
16.6 Mixer Circuits 955
16.7 A Note on Impedance Matching 955
16.8 Speakers 956
16.9 Crossover Networks 957
16.10 Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers 959
16.11 Audible-Signal
Devices 960
16.12 Miscellaneous Audio Circuits 960
CHAPTER 17 Modular Electronics 963
17.1 There’s an IC for It 963
17.2 Breakout Boards and Modules 963
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17.2.1 Radio Frequency Modules 964
17.2.2 Audio Modules 967
17.3 Plug-and-Play Prototyping 968
17.4 Open Source Hardware 970
APPENDIX A Power Distribution and Home Wiring 973
A.1 Power Distribution 973
A.2 A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity 974
A.3 Home Wiring 976
A.4 Electricity in Other Countries 977
APPENDIX B Error Analysis 979
B.1 Absolute Error, Relative Error, and Percent Error 979
B.2 Uncertainty Estimates 980
APPENDIX C Useful Facts and Formulas 983
C.1 Greek Alphabet 983
C.2 Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes 983
C.3 Linear Functions (y = mx + b) 983
C.4 Quadratic Equation (y = ax 2 + bx + c) 984
C.5 Exponents and Logarithms 984
C.6 Trigonometry 984
C.7 Complex Numbers 985
C.8 Differential Calculus 985
C.9 Integral Calculus 987
Index 989
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