Power System Analysis and Design 6th Edition By J Duncan Glover and Thomas Overbye and Mulukutla S Sarma

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Power System Analysis and Design 6th Edition By J Duncan Glover and Thomas Overbye and Mulukutla S Sarma

Contents

Preface xi
List of Symbols, Units, and Notation xvii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
Case Study: How the Free Market Rocked the Grid 2
1.1 History of Electric Power Systems 10
1.2 Present and Future Trends 17
1.3 Electric Utility Industry Structure 20
1.4 Computers in Power System Engineering 21
1.5 PowerWorld Simulator 22
CHAPTER 2 Fundamentals 31
Case Study: Key Connections 32
2.1 Phasors 40
2.2 Instantaneous Power in Single-Phase AC Circuits 42
2.3 Complex Power 47
2.4 Network Equations 52
2.5 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 55
2.6 Power in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 63
2.7 Advantages of Balanced Three-Phase versus
Single-Phase Systems 68
CHAPTER 3 Power Transformers 87
Case Study: Power Transformers—Life Management
and Extension 88
3.1 The Ideal Transformer 95
3.2 Equivalent Circuits for Practical Transformers 101
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
3.3 The Per-Unit System 107
3.4 Three-Phase Transformer Connections
and Phase Shift 115
3.5 Per-Unit Equivalent Circuits of Balanced Three-Phase
Two-Winding Transformers 120
3.6 Three-Winding Transformers 125
3.7 Autotransformers 129
3.8 Transformers with Off-Nominal Turns
Ratios 131
CHAPTER 4 Transmission Line Parameters 161
Case Study: Integrating North America’s Power Grid 162
Case Study: Grid Congestion – Unclogging the Arteries
of North America’s Power Grid 167
4.1 Transmission Line Design Considerations 173
4.2 Resistance 178
4.3 Conductance 181
4.4 Inductance: Solid Cylindrical Conductor 181
4.5 Inductance: Single-Phase Two-Wire Line
and Three-Phase Three-Wire Line with Equal Phase
Spacing 186
4.6 Inductance: Composite Conductors, Unequal Phase
Spacing, Bundled Conductors 188
4.7 Series Impedances: Three-Phase Line with Neutral
Conductors and Earth Return 196
4.8 Electric Field and Voltage:
Solid Cylindrical Conductor 201
4.9 Capacitance: Single-Phase Two-Wire
Line and Three-Phase Three-Wire Line with
Equal Phase Spacing 204
4.10 Capacitance: Stranded Conductors, Unequal Phase
Spacing, Bundled Conductors 206
4.11 Shunt Admittances: Lines with Neutral Conductors
and Earth Return 210
4.12 Electric Field Strength at Conductor Surfaces and
at Ground Level 215
4.13 Parallel Circuit Three-Phase Lines 218
CHAPTER 5 Transmission Lines: Steady-State Operation 237
Case Study: The ABCs of HVDC Transmission
Technologies: An Overview of High Voltage Direct
Current Systems and Applications 238
5.1 Medium and Short Line Approximations 258
5.2 Transmission-Line Differential Equations 265
5.3 Equivalent p Circuit 271
5.4 Lossless Lines 274
5.5 Maximum Power Flow 282
5.6 Line Loadability 284
5.7 Reactive Compensation Techniques 289
CHAPTER 6 Power Flows 309
Case Study: Finding Flexibility—Cycling the Conventional
Fleet 310
6.1 Direct Solutions to Linear Algebraic Equations:
Gauss Elimination 330
6.2 Iterative Solutions to Linear Algebraic Equations:
Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel 334
6.3 Iterative Solutions to Nonlinear
Algebraic Equations: Newton-Raphson 340
6.4 The Power Flow Problem 345
6.5 Power Flow Solution by Gauss-Seidel 351
6.6 Power Flow Solution by Newton-Raphson 353
6.7 Control of Power Flow 363
6.8 Sparsity Techniques 369
6.9 Fast Decoupled Power Flow 372
6.10 The “DC” Power Flow 372
6.11 Power Flow Modeling of Wind Generation 374
6.12 Economic Dispatch 376
6.13 Optimal Power Flow 389
Design Projects 1–3 404–412
CHAPTER 7 Symmetrical Faults 415
Case Study: Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power
Plant 416
7.1 Series R–L Circuit Transients 435
7.2 Three-Phase Short Circuit—Unloaded Synchronous
Machine 438
7.3 Power System Three-Phase Short Circuits 442
7.4 Bus Impedance Matrix 445
7.5 Circuit Breaker and Fuse Selection 455
Design Project 3 (continued ) 472
CHAPTER 8 Symmetrical Components 475
Case Study: Technological Progress in High-Voltage
Gas-Insulated Substations 476
8.1 Definition of Symmetrical Components 493
8.2 Sequence Networks of Impedance Loads 499
8.3 Sequence Networks of Series Impedances 506
8.4 Sequence Networks of Three-Phase Lines 508
8.5 Sequence Networks of Rotating Machines 510
8.6 Per-Unit Sequence Models of Three-Phase
Two-Winding Transformers 516
8.7 Per-Unit Sequence Models of Three-Phase
Three-Winding Transformers 522
8.8 Power in Sequence Networks 524
CHAPTER 9 Unsymmetrical Faults 539
Case Study: Innovative Medium Voltage Switchgear
for Today’s Applications 540
9.1 System Representation 547
9.2 Single Line-to-Ground Fault 553
9.3 Line-to-Line Fault 557
9.4 Double Line-to-Ground Fault 560
9.5 Sequence Bus Impedance Matrices 567
Design Project 3 (continued ) 588
Design Project 4 589
CHAPTER 10 System Protection 593
Case Study: Upgrading Relay Protection Be Prepared for the
Next Replacement or Upgrade Project 594
10.1 System Protection Components 612
10.2 Instrument Transformers 614
10.3 Overcurrent Relays 620
10.4 Radial System Protection 625
10.5 Reclosers and Fuses 629
10.6 Directional Relays 633
10.7 Protection of a Two-Source System with Directional
Relays 634
10.8 Zones of Protection 635
10.9 Line Protection with Impedance (Distance)
Relays 639
10.10 Differential Relays 645
10.11 Bus Protection with Differential Relays 647
10.12 Transformer Protection with Differential
Relays 648
10.13 Pilot Relaying 653
10.14 Numeric Relaying 654
CHAPTER 11 Transient Stability 669
Case Study: Down, but Not Out 671
11.1 The Swing Equation 689
11.2 Simplified Synchronous Machine Model and System
Equivalents 695
11.3 The Equal-Area Criterion 697
11.4 Numerical Integration of the Swing Equation 707
11.5 Multimachine Stability 711
11.6 A Two-Axis Synchronous Machine Model 719
11.7 Wind Turbine Machine Models 724
11.8 Design Methods for Improving Transient
Stability 730
CHAPTER 12 Power System Controls 739
Case Study: No Light in August: Power System Restoration
Following the 2003 North American Blackout 742
12.1 Generator-Voltage Control 757
12.2 Turbine-Governor Control 761
12.3 Load-Frequency Control 767
CHAPTER 13 Transmission Lines: Transient Operation 779
Case Study: Surge Arresters 780
Case Study: Emergency Response 794
13.1 Traveling Waves on Single-Phase Lossless Lines 809
13.2 Boundary Conditions for Single-Phase Lossless
Lines 813
13.3 Bewley Lattice Diagram 822
13.4 Discrete-Time Models of Single-Phase Lossless Lines
and Lumped RLC Elements 828
13.5 Lossy Lines 834
13.6 Multiconductor Lines 838
13.7 Power System Overvoltages 841
13.8 Insulation Coordination 847
CHAPTER 14 Power Distribution 859
Case Study: It’s All in the Plans 860
14.1 Introduction to Distribution 875
14.2 Primary Distribution 878
14.3 Secondary Distribution 885
14.4 Transformers in Distribution Systems 890
14.5 Shunt Capacitors in Distribution Systems 900
14.6 Distribution Software 905
14.7 Distribution Reliability 906
14.8 Distribution Automation 910
14.9 Smart Grids 913
Appendix 921
Index 925

Preface

The objective of this book is to present methods of power system analysis and
design, particularly with the aid of a personal computer, in sufficient depth to give
the student the basic theory at the undergraduate level. The approach is designed to
develop students’ thinking processes, enabling them to reach a sound understanding
of a broad range of topics related to power system engineering, while motivating
their interest in the electrical power industry. Because we believe that fundamental
physical concepts underlie creative engineering and form the most valuable and
permanent part of an engineering education, we highlight physical concepts while
giving due attention to mathematical techniques. Both theory and modeling are
developed from simple beginnings so that they can be readily extended to new and
complex situations.
New To This Edition
New chapter-opening case studies bring principles to life for students by providing practical,
real-world engineering applications for the material discussed in each chapter.
Comprehensively revised problem sets ensure students have the practice they
need to master critical skills.
Updated Instructor Resources
These resources include
●● Instructor’s Solutions Manual with solutions to all problems
●● Comprehensive Test Bank offering additional problems
●● Annotated Lecture Note PowerPoint Slides
●● Lesson Plans that detail how to most effectively use this edition
●● Updated PowerWorld Simulator Software
●● Student PowerPoint Notes
New design projects in this edition meet Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology (ABET) requirements to provide valuable hands-on experience and to
help ensure students are receiving an education that meets globally recognized accreditation
standards.
The latest version of the valuable PowerWorld Simulator (version 19) is included
and integrated throughout the text.
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights,
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially
affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Key Features

The text presents present-day, practical applications and new technologies along
with ample coverage of the ongoing restructuring of the electric utility industry. It is
supported by an ample number of worked examples, including illustrations, covering
most of the theoretical points raised. It also includes PowerWorld Simulator version 19
to extend fully worked examples into computer implementations of the solutions.
Version 19 includes power flow, optimal power flow, contingency analysis, short
circuit, and transient stability.
The text includes a chapter on Power Distribution with content on Smart Grids.
It also includes discussions on modeling of wind turbines in power flow and
transient stability.
Four design projects are included, all of which meet ABET requirements.
PowerWorld Simulator
One of the most challenging aspects of engineering education is giving students
an intuitive feel for the systems they are studying. Engineering systems are, for
the most part, complex. While paper-and-pencil exercises can be quite useful
for highlighting the fundamentals, they often fall short in imparting the desired
intuitive insight. To help provide this insight, the book uses PowerWorld Simulator
version 19 to integrate computer-based examples, problems, and design
projects throughout the text.
PowerWorld Simulator was originally developed at the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign to teach the basics of power systems to nontechnical people
involved in the electricity industry, with version 1.0 introduced in June 1994. The program’s
interactive and graphical design made it an immediate hit as an educational
tool, but a funny thing happened—its interactive and graphical design also appealed
to engineers doing analysis of real power systems. To meet the needs of a growing
group of users, PowerWorld Simulator was commercialized in 1996 by the formation
of PowerWorld Corporation. Thus while retaining its appeal for education, over the
years PowerWorld Simulator has evolved into a top-notch analysis package, able to
handle power systems of any size. PowerWorld Simulator is now used throughout the
power industry, with a range of users encompassing universities, utilities of all sizes,
government regulators, power marketers, and consulting firms.
In integrating PowerWorld Simulator with the text, our design philosophy has
been to use the software to extend, rather than replace, the fully worked examples
provided in previous editions. Therefore, except when the problem size makes it
impractical, each PowerWorld Simulator example includes a fully worked hand
solution of the problem along with a PowerWorld Simulator case. This format
allows students to simultaneously see the details of how a problem is solved and
a computer implementation of the solution. The added benefit from PowerWorld
Simulator is its ability to easily extend the example. Through its interactive design,
students can quickly vary example parameters and immediately see the impact such
changes have on the solution. By reworking the examples with the new parameters,
students get immediate feedback on whether they understand the solution process.