Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines Their Design and Development By Rowland S Benson and N D Whitehouse

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Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines Their Design and Development By Rowland S Benson and N D Whitehouse

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Preface

The ever-present energy crisis and the need for environmental controls
has had a major impact on the development of the internal combustion
engine. In this development a closer understanding of the
thermodynamic processes occurring within the engine is necessary.
Both authors have been continuously involved in the industry and the
universities over the past 30 years in the design, development, research
and the teaching of internal combustion engines. The present
text represents the fruits of some of their labours. Much of the
material is original and some has not been published heretofore. The
material has been used in the authors* department in the final year’s
BSc courses and in the MSc course.
The text has been written as a companion to one of the authors
(R.S, Benson’s) text in the same series entitled Advanced Engineering
Thermodynamias (2nd edition). A novel feature in the text is the
presentation of FORTRAN listings of two programs for simple cycle
calculations—one for a compression ignition engine cycle and the
other for a spark ignition engine cycle. Methods are also outlined
for more complex cycle calculations of the type which are now normally
carried our in design offices. The quantitative material for combustion
processes in compression ignition engines and some of the data for
spark ignition engines are based on the latest research carried out
in the authors’ laboratories.
The text is divided into two volumes to suit the convenience of students.
The first volume contains material suitable for an undergraduate
course in internal combustion engines, whilst the second volume
is more relevent to postgraduate courses.
The book is primarily concerned with the thermodynamics of internal
combustion engines but inevitably we have included hardware features.
Since the successful understanding of the processes in which the
engine operates is dependent on experimental work, a section is
included on experimental methods which is appended to Volume I although
some of the techniques are only used in advanced research establishments.
The authors wish to acknowledge with thanks the help of the numerous
research students, research assistants and technical staff in producing
the data used in the text. They wish to thank the various
publishers and institutions for the reproductions of figures, due
acknowledgement of which is given in the appropriate place. They
also wish to thank Mrs. M. McDonnell and Mrs. P. Shepherd for typing
the draft and Mrs. J.A. Munro for typing the camera ready copy of the
text. Finally, they wish to thank their respective wives and families for
their patience and forbearance for the many evenings and weekends spent
in preparing the text.

Contents of Volume 1

Preface ν
Acknowledgments vi
Chapter 1 Description of internal Combustion Engines 1
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The Compression Ignition Engine 4
1.2.1 Compression Ignition Engine Combustion Chambers 5
1.2.1.1 Subdivided Combustion Chamber 6
1.2.1.2 Direct Injection Combustion Chamber 8
1.2.1.3 The Quiescent Combustion Chamber 12
1.3 Indirect or Spark Ignition Engines 15
1.3.1 Indirect or Spark Ignition Engine Combustion
Chambers 15
1.3.1.1 Automotive Engine Combustion Chambers 18
1.3.1.2 High Compression Ratio Gas Engine 18
1.3.2 Stratified Charge Engines 20
1.3.3 Torch Ignition Engines 22
1.4 Rotary Engines 22
1.4.1 The Wankel Engine 22
References 24
Chapter Basic Tiiermodynaiiiics and Gas Dynamics 25
Notation 26
2.1 State Equation 27
2.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 28
2.2.1 Closed Systems 28
2.2.2 Open Systems 29
2.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 32
2.4 Homentropic Flow 34
2.4.1 Continuity Equation 34
2.4.2 Momentum Equation 35
2.5 Gas Mixtures 37
2.6 Internal Energy and Enthalpy Diagrams 38
2.7 Dissociation 44
References 50
Chapter 3 Air Standard Cycles 51
Notation 52
3.1 Air Standard Cycle Efficiencies 53
3.2 Limitations 61
Chapter 4 Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines 69
Notation 70
4.1 Description of Combustion Process 71
4.2 Models for Compression Ignition Combustion Calculations 75
4.2.1 Single-zone Combustion Models 75
4.2.1.1 Lyn’s Method 77
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ν i i i Contents of Volume 1
4.2.1,2 Whitehouse-Way’s Method 79
4.2.2 Two-zone Combustion Model 84
4.2.2.1 The Conical/Annular Burning Zone Model 86
4.2.2.2 The Swirling-wall Jet-burning Zone Model 88
4.2.3 Multi-zone Combustion Models 88
4.2.4 Turbulent Flow Prediction Models 88
4.3 Combustion-generated Emissions 89
4.3.1 Soot 90
4.3.2 Gaseous Pollutants 92
References 93
Chapters Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines 97
Notation 98
5.1 Definitions of Controlled, Uncontrolled, Normal and
Abnormal Combustion 99
5.2 Normal Combustion 99
5.3 Abnormal Combustion-Engine Knock 105
5.3.1 Combustion Research in Hydrocarbon-Oxygen Mixtures 106
5.3.2 Engine Research 111
5.3.3 Influence of Fuel Additives on Knock 117
5.4 Uncontrolled Combustion, Pre-ignition and Running-on 118
5.4.1 Pre-ignition 119
5.4.2 Running-on 119
5.4.3 Rumble 119
5.5 Chemical Thermodynamic Models for Normal Combustion 119
5.6 Combustion-generated Emissions 123
5.6.1 Carbon Monoxide 123
5.6.2 Nitric Oxide 124
5.6.3 Hydrocarbons 134
References 136
Chapter 6 Heat Transfer in Engines 139
Notation 140
6.1 Basic Principles 141
6.1.1 Radiation 141
6.1.2 Radiation from Clouds of Solid Particles Such
as Soot 146
6.1.3 Convectivo Heat Transfer 147
6.2 Heat Transfer in Internal Combustion Engines – A Survey 149
6.3 Heat Transfer in Internal Combustion Engines — Some
Practical Considerations 152
6.4 Instantaneous Heat Transfer Calculations 155
6.4.1 Single-zone Heat Transfer Calculations 155
6.4.2 Multi-zone Heat Transfer 161
6.5 Numerical Values 163
References 165
Appendix I Experimental Methods 169
Notation 170
1.1 Pressure Measurement and Recording 171
1.2 Temperature Measurement and Recording 177
1.2.1 Component Temperature Measurement 177
1.2.2 Gas Temperature Measurement 186
1.3 Combustion Photography and Flame Speed Detection 189
1.4 Spectrographic Methods 191
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Contents of Volume 1 i χ
1.5 Chemical Analysis Techniques 193
1.5.1 Sampling Valve 193
1.5.2 Orsat Apparatus 194
1.5.3 Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) 195
1.5.4 Flame Ionization Detector (FID) 196
1.5.5 Gas Chromatography 198
1.5.6 Chemiluminescence 199
References 200
Subject Index xiii
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