Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

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Contents

CHAPTER – 1
Dimensions and Systems of Units
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.2 Dimensions and Units …………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 Non-Dimensional Quantity ……………………………………………………………………. 4
1.4 Pressure Scales …………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.5 Fluid Properties …………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.5.1 Density and Specific Weight ……………………………………………………… 7
1.5.2 Viscosity …………………………………………………………………………………. 8
1.6 Surface Tension …………………………………………. , ………………………………………. 9
1.7 Capi lIary Action …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.8 Compressibility and Mach Number ………………………………………………………. \0
Solved Exanlples …………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Problems ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
CHAPTER – 2
Fluid Flow
2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
2.2 Scope of Fluid Mechnanics …………………………………………………………………. 23
2.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow ……………………………………………………………….. 24
2.4 Momentum Equation for One-Dimensional Flow ……………………………………. 25
2.5 Momentum Equation for Two-Dimensional Flow …………………………………… 26
2.6 Jet Striking a Plate (3 cases) ……………………………………………………………….. 27
2.7 Force Exerted when jet is Deflected by a Moving Vane …………………………. 28
2.8 Euler’s and BernQullis Equations ………………………………………………………….. 29
2.9 Application ofBernoullis Equation ……………………………………………………….. 32
2.9.1 Air Foil …………………………………………………………………………………. 33
2.9.2 Automobile ……………………………………………………………………………. 33
2.9.3 Free Jet ………………………… , …………………………………………………….. 34
2.9.4 Pump ……………………………………………………………………………………. 34
2.9.5 Turbine …………………………………………………………………………………. 35
2.9.6 Flow Measurement ………………………………………………………………… 35
2.9.7 Measurement of Static and Stagnation Pressures ………………………. 37
Solved Exan’ples ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
Problems ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
CHAPTER – 3
Thermal and Hydropower Stations
3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
3.2 Steam Turbine Power Plant ………………………………………………………………… 63
3.3 Gas Turbine Power Plant ……………………………………………………………………. 64
3.3.1 Comparing Steam and Gas Turbine Power Stations ……………………. 66
3.4 Combined Cycle Power Plants …………………………………………………………….. 67
3.5 Hydropower Plants ……………………………………………………………………………. 68
3.6 Underground Power Station ………………………………………………………………… 72
3.6.1 Underground Power Plants (Tumut 1 and 2 – Australia) ……………… 72
3.7 Surface Power Plant ………………………………………………………………………….. 76
3.7.1 Comparing Hydropower Plants with Thermal Power Plants ………… 79
CHAPTER- 4
Fluid Machinery
4.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
4.2 Classification of Fluid Machines …………………………………………………………… 85
4.3 Pumps (Axial and Radial) …………………………………………………………………… 88
4.4 Compressors (Axial and Radial) ………………………………………………………….. 89
4.5 Turbines ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
4.5.1 Pelton Wheel …………………………………………………………………………. 91
4.5.2 Francis Turbine ………………….. , ………………………………………………… 92
4.5.3 Kaplan Turbine ………………………………………………………………………. 92
4.5.4 Steam Turbines ……………………………………………………………………… 92
4.5.5 Gas Turbine …………………………………………………………………………… 93
4.6 Euler’s Theory Applied to Turbo Machines ……………………………………………. 93
4.6.2 Euler’s Equation in the Kinetic Form ………………………………………… 96
CHAPTER- 5
Pelton Turbine
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………… 1 0 1
5.2 Description of Pelton Turbine Installation ……………………………………………. 101
5.3 Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
5.4 Pelton Turbine Losses and Efficiencies ………………………………………………. 109
5.4.1 Working Proportions for Design of Pelton Wheel …………………….. 110
5.5 Regulation of Pelton Wheel ……………………………………………………………….. 112
5.6 Regulating System of Pelton Wheel Power Station ………………………………. 114
Solved Examples …..•…..•…•……..•.••…………………………………………………………………. t t 5
Case Study ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
CHAPTER – 6
Francis Turbine
6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… 129
6.2 Description of Francis Turbine …………………………………………………………… 129
6.3 Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
6.4 Draft Tube ………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
6.5 Working Proportions of Francis Turbine ……………………………………………… 136
6.6 Specific Speed of hydraulic Turbines ………………………………………………….. 137
6.7 Regulation of Francis Turbine ……………………………………………………………. 139
6.7.1 Comparison between Pelton and Francis Turbines ……………………. 141.
Solved Examples ………………………………….•…………………………•…………………………. 143
Prohlenls …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
CHAPTER – 7
Propeller and Kaplan Turbines
7.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… 157
7.2 Description of Propeller Turbine ………………………………………………………… 157
7.3 Analysis and Construction of Velocity Diagram …………………………………… 160
7.5 Description of Kaplan Turbine ………………………………………………………….. 166
7.6 Comparision between Francis and Kaplan Turbine ……………………………….. 168
7.7 Comparision between Pelton and Kaplan Turbine ………………………………… 168
Solved Examples ……………………•…………………………………•……••…..•…•…..•………….. 169
CHAPTER – 8
Turbo Pumps
8.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… 183
8.2 Human Heart (Pump) ………………………………………………………………………. 183
8.3 Description of Centrifugal Pump ………………………………………………………… 183
8.4 Analysis …… : ……………………………………………………………………………………. 185
8.4.1 Specific Speed …………………………………………………………………….. 189
8.5 Cavitation and N.~t Positive Suction Head (NPSH) ………………………………. 190
8.6 Pumps in SerietWand Parallel ……………………………………………………………… 191
8.7 Matching Pumps to a System Demand ……………………………………………….. 192
8.8 Axial Flow Pump ……………………………………………………………………………… 194
Solved Examples …………………………………………………………………………………………. 197
Problems …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 204
CHAPTER – 9
Positive Displacement Pumps
9.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… 207
9.2 Description ofa Reciprocating Pump …………………………………………………. 207
9.3 Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
9.3.1 Power Output ………………………………………………………………………. 209
9.3.2 Pump Effici~ncy ………………………………………………………………….. 210
9.4 Application of Piston Pumps ……………………………………………………………… 211
9.4.1 Radial Piston Pump ………………………………………………………………. 212
9.4.2 Swashplate Pump (Axial Piston Pump) …………………………………… 212
9.4.3 Wobble Plate Pump (Axial Piston Pump) ………………………………… 213
9.4.4 Bent Axis Piston Pump (Axial Piston Pump) …………………………… 213
9.4.5 Gear Pump ………………………………………………………………………….. 214
Solved Examples …………………………………………………………………………….•………….. 215
Multiple Choice Questions ………………………………………………………………………… 217