Fire Safety Management Handbook Third Edition By Daniel E Della Giustina

Pages 270
Views 1,207
Fire Safety Management Handbook Third Edition By Daniel E Della Giustina

Contents

Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………..xvii
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………. xxiii
About the Author……………………………………………………………………………………….xxv
Chapter 1 Major Organizations in the Field of Fire Safety……………………………..1
National Fire Protection Association…………………………………………….1
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc…………………………………………………….3
UL Standards/American National Standards Institute (ANSI)………….4
Insurance Companies………………………………………………………………….4
Factory Mutual…………………………………………………………………………..5
Industrial Risk Insurers……………………………………………………………….5
National Fire Academy……………………………………………………………….5
National Fire Academy Curriculum………………………………………………7
Government Agencies…………………………………………………………………8
Study Guide Questions………………………………………………………………..8
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………8
Chapter 2 Fire Chemistry………………………………………………………………………… 11
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Definition of Fire……………………………………………………………………… 11
Fire Triangle……………………………………………………………………………. 11
Fuel……………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Oxygen……………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Heat……………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Fire Tetrahedron………………………………………………………………………. 14
Classes of Fire…………………………………………………………………………. 15
Three Stages of Fire…………………………………………………………………. 16
Incipient Stage…………………………………………………………………….. 16
Free-Burning Stage……………………………………………………………… 17
Smoldering Stage…………………………………………………………………. 17
Study Guide Questions……………………………………………………………… 17
Case Studies……………………………………………………………………………. 18
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………. 18
Chapter 3 Essential Elements……………………………………………………………………. 19
Fire Safety Concepts………………………………………………………………… 19
Action Plan for Developing a Program……………………………………….. 19
Program Goals………………………………………………………………………… 21
Program Elements. ……………………………………………………………………21
System Evaluation. ……………………………………………………………………23
Recommendations. ……………………………………………………………….23
Program Guidelines………………………………………………………………….25
Fire Brigade. …………………………………………………………………………….26
Industrial Fire Brigade Member Professional Qualifications—2012 Standard. ……………………………………………..28
Emergency Planning. ………………………………………………………………..29
Plant Self-Inspection. ………………………………………………………………..30
Cutting and Welding. ………………………………………………………………..31
Hazards When Welding. ……………………………………………………………32
Regulating Smoking Areas. ……………………………………………………….32
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………..35
Case Studies. ……………………………………………………………………………36
Bibliography. ……………………………………………………………………………36
Chapter 4 Identification and Control of Materials Considered Hazardous. ………37
Identification of Hazardous Materials. …………………………………………37
Hazard Analysis/Causal Investigation. ………………………………………..43
NFPA 704. …………………………………………………………………………..44
Health Hazards Are Indicated in the Left Square, Color-Coded Blue. ……………………………………………………………44
Flammability Hazards Are Indicated in the Top Square, Color-Coded Red. …………………………………………………………….44
Reactivity (Stability) Hazards Are Indicated in the Right Square, Color-Coded Yellow. ……………………………………44
Special Information Is Indicated in the Bottom Square, Color-Coded White. ………………………………………………………….45
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). …………………………………………………….45
Global Safety and Health Administration. ……………………………………47
Emergency Response Mutual Aid Network. …………………………………47
Isolation of Hazards. …………………………………………………………………48
Ignition Sources. ……………………………………………………………………….51
Flash Point and Ignition Points. ………………………………………………….52
Ignition Temperatures. ………………………………………………………………52
Static Electricity. ………………………………………………………………………53
Gases. ……………………………………………………………………………………..53
Vapor Density. ……………………………………………………………………..53
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). …………………………………………….53
Acetylene. ……………………………………………………………………………55
Oxygen. ……………………………………………………………………………….55
Monthly Safety Inspection Report for Compressed Gas Cylinders. …56
The Use of Chemicals. ………………………………………………………………56
Combustible Chemicals. ………………………………………………………..57
Oxidizing Chemicals. ……………………………………………………………57
Air-Reactive and Water-Reactive Chemicals. …………………………..57
Unstable Chemicals. ……………………………………………………………..57
Explosives and Blasting Agents. …………………………………………………58
Corrosives. ……………………………………………………………………………….59
Toxic Chemicals. ………………………………………………………………………59
Halogens and Halogenated Hydrocarbons. …………………………………..60
Radioactive Chemicals. ……………………………………………………………..60
Determination of Hazards. …………………………………………………………61
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). ………………………..63
Other Areas of Subpart L—Fire Protection. …………………………….63
Combustible Dust. …………………………………………………………………….64
NFPA (Numbers) Publications Relevant to Combustible Dust Hazard Controls. …………………………………………………………………..65
Inspections. ………………………………………………………………………….65
Combustible Solids. …………………………………………………………………..65
Combustible Metals. ………………………………………………………………….66
Plastics. ……………………………………………………………………………………67
Sources of Additional Information. ……………………………………………..68
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………..68
Bibliography. ……………………………………………………………………………69
Chapter 5 Building Construction. ………………………………………………………………71
Facility Location. ……………………………………………………………………..71
Layout of Facilities. …………………………………………………………………..73
Planning. ……………………………………………………………………………..73
Floor Design. ……………………………………………………………………….74
Flow Sheets…………………………………………………………………………74
Life Safety. ………………………………………………………………………………75
Evaluating Life Safety. ………………………………………………………………77
Evaluating Building Construction. ………………………………………………79
Management Approaches for Assuring Life Safety. ………………………82
Building Codes. ………………………………………………………………………..83
International Building Code. ………………………………………………………86
Engineering Design Considerations for Plant Layout. ……………………87
Location of Buildings and Structures. …………………………………………87
Selection of Building Materials………………………………………………….88
Framing. ……………………………………………………………………………..90
Walls and Partitions. ……………………………………………………………..91
Floor and Roof Assemblies. …………………………………………………..91
Roof and Floor Covering. ………………………………………………………92
Fire Loading. ……………………………………………………………………….93
Compartmentalizing Facility. …………………………………………………….94
Fire Doors and Windows. ………………………………………………………95
Fire Protection Rating. ………………………………………………………….96
Smoke and Heat Venting. ………………………………………………………97
Application and Scope. ………………………………………………………….97
Principles of Venting. ……………………………………………………………98
Classification of Occupancies. ………………………………………………..98
Vents. ………………………………………………………………………………….99
Release Methods. ………………………………………………………………..100
Venting Ratios. …………………………………………………………………..100
Explosion Hazards. ……………………………………………………………..100
Determination of Deflagration Characteristics. ………………………100
Determination of Hazard to Be Protected. ……………………………..101
Explosion Prevention Systems. ………………………………………………….101
Explosion Suppression Systems. ……………………………………………….101
Explosion Venting. ………………………………………………………………102
Venting Deflagrations. …………………………………………………………102
Description of Vents and Vent Closures. ………………………………..103
Installation of Utilities and Services. …………………………………………104
Electrical Installation. …………………………………………………………104
Gas Piping Installations. ………………………………………………………105
Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Vertical Conveyers. …………………..105
Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. ………………..105
Electronic Computers/Data Processing Equipment. ………………..106
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. ……………………………….107
Maintenance. ………………………………………………………………………….108
Summary. ………………………………………………………………………………109
Addresses. ……………………………………………………………………………..109
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………110
Case Studies. ………………………………………………………………………….110
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….110
Chapter 6 Fire Detection Systems. ……………………………………………………………113
Automatic Fire Detection Systems. ……………………………………………113
Radiation Detectors. ………………………………………………………………..115
Ultraviolet Flame Detector. ………………………………………………………117
Thermal Detectors. ………………………………………………………………….118
Smoke Detectors…………………………………………………………………….119
Air Sampling Detector. ……………………………………………………………122
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………122
Case Study—Fire Incident Event. ……………………………………………..123
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….124
Chapter 7 Fire Control Systems. ………………………………………………………………127
Automatic Sprinkler Systems. …………………………………………………..127
Sprinkler Heads. …………………………………………………………………128
Types of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. …………………………………129
Water Supply. …………………………………………………………………….130
Carbon Dioxide Systems. …………………………………………………………130
Foam Extinguishing Systems. …………………………………………………..132
Halon Extinguishing Systems. ………………………………………………….134
Halon Alternatives. ………………………………………………………………….136
Water Spray Systems. ………………………………………………………………136
Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. ………………………………………136
Portable Fire Extinguishers. ……………………………………………………..138
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………138
Case Studies. ………………………………………………………………………….139
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….139
Chapter 8 Care, Maintenance, and Inspection. …………………………………………..141
Care and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems. ……………………………..141
Maintenance as a Factor in Sprinkler System Performance. …………142
Responsibility for Maintenance. ……………………………………………….142
Fall Inspection. …………………………………………………………………..144
Spring Inspection. ……………………………………………………………….144
Insurance Inspections. ……………………………………………………………..144
Fire Department Inspections. ……………………………………………………145
Contractors’ Services. ……………………………………………………………..145
Central Station Supervisory Service. …………………………………………145
Reliability Tests of Automatic Sprinklers. ………………………………….145
Accumulation of Foreign Material on Sprinklers. ……………………….146
Corrosion of Automatic Sprinklers. …………………………………………..146
Protection of Pipes against External Corrosion. ………………………….147
Sprinkler System Impairments. …………………………………………………147
Basic Principles of Maintenance and Inspection. ………………………..148
Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Extinguishers. …………………….149
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………150
Case Studies. ………………………………………………………………………….150
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….150
Chapter 9 Legal Aspects, Organization, and Legislation. ……………………………153
Legal Aspects of Fire Safety. ……………………………………………………153
Upper-Management Responsibilities. …………………………………….153
Safety Management Staff. ……………………………………………………154
Middle-Management Responsibilities. …………………………………..155
Lower-Management Responsibilities. ……………………………………155
Employee Responsibilities. …………………………………………………..156
Organizational Structure. …………………………………………………………156
Federal Legislation, Agencies, and Regulations. …………………………158
Federal Fire Prevention Control Act of 1974………………………….158
OSHA Act of 1970……………………………………………………………..159
Respiratory Protection Standard. ………………………………………….160
Federal Mine Safety and Health Act. …………………………………….161
Fire Prevention and Control. ………………………………………………..161
State Agencies and Regulations. ……………………………………………….162
State Fire Marshal. ……………………………………………………………..162
State Insurance Commission. ……………………………………………….162
County and Municipal Ordinances and Codes. ……………………….163
The Strength of Laws. ……………………………………………………………..163
Building Department Enforcement of Building Codes. ……………163
Legal Rights of Fire Departments. …………………………………………….163
Right of Entry. ……………………………………………………………………164
Authority When Answering an Alarm. ………………………………….164
Taking and Preserving Property…………………………………………..164
Conducting Investigations to Determine Cause of Fire. …………..164
Attacking, Hindering, or Obstructing Firemen or Emergency Equipment. ……………………………………………………….165
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….165
Chapter 10 Emergency Response Planning for Safety Professionals. ……………..167
Introduction. …………………………………………………………………………..167
Federal Emergency Management Agency. ………………………………….167
Workplace Emergencies. ………………………………………………………….168
The National Incident Management System. ………………………………168
Key Elements of the Emergency Response Plan. …………………………169
Types of Emergencies—Natural or Manmade. ……………………………169
Alerting and Warning Employees. …………………………………………….170
Accountability after Evacuation. ……………………………………………….170
Training Employees on Types of Emergencies. …………………………..171
Key Points for Training Employees. ………………………………………171
A School Fire Plan for Implementation. …………………………………172
Continuity of Management. ………………………………………………………172
Summary. ………………………………………………………………………………172
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………173
Case Study—Power Plant Explosion. …………………………………………173
References. …………………………………………………………………………….175
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….175
Chapter 11 The United States Fire Administration. ……………………………………..177
The Fire Administration’s Mission. …………………………………………..177
USFA Reorganization……………………………………………………………..178
A Brief History of the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Academy. ………………………………………………..178
Accomplishments and Problems. ………………………………………………179
Problems. …………………………………………………………………………..179
Accomplishments. ………………………………………………………………181
Arson Prevention Control. ……………………………………………….181
Data Collection and Analysis. ………………………………………….181
Fire Department Management. …………………………………………182
Fire Fighter Health and Safety…………………………………………182
Life Safety. ……………………………………………………………………182
National Fire Academy. …………………………………………………..182
Policy and Coordination. …………………………………………………182
Public Fire Safety Education. …………………………………………..183
USFA’s Strategic Initiatives. ……………………………………………………..183
Chapter 12 Department of Homeland Security. …………………………………………..185
Homeland Security. …………………………………………………………………185
Events Leading to the Department of Homeland Security. …………..186
Emergency Preparedness and Business Continuity Standard (NFPA 1600). …………………………………………………………………………186
Act of 2002. ……………………………………………………………………….186
Emergency Managers. ……………………………………………………………..187
Homeland Security Reorganized into the Following Agencies. …..187
Advisory Groups. ……………………………………………………………….188
Five Major Categories of Homeland Security. …………………………….188
Prevention against Terrorism. …………………………………………………..188
Border Security. ………………………………………………………………….189
Immigration Laws Enforced. ………………………………………………..189
Preparedness, Response, and Recovery of Disasters. ………………189
The National Incident Management System (NIMS). ………………….189
Unification of the Department. ……………………………………………..190
Goals/Purposes. ………………………………………………………………….190
National Response Plan (NRP). ………………………………………………..190
Possible Changes in the Color Code System. ………………………….191
Conclusion. …………………………………………………………………………….191
Study Guide Questions. ……………………………………………………………192
Bibliography. ………………………………………………………………………….192
Glossary/Fire Terms. ………………………………………………………………………………..195
Appendix A. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..207
Additional National Fire Protection Association References. ……….208
Appendix B: OSHA 1997. …………………………………………………………………………209
Appendix C: Addresses. ……………………………………………………………………………211
Appendix D: Fire Codes and Standards. ……………………………………………………213
The Emergence of Codes and Standards. …………………………………..213
Published Codes. …………………………………………………………………….213
Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA). …………………………………………………………………………….213
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). …………..214
Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). ………214
International Code Council (ICC). ………………………………………..214
Other Major Building Code Development Organizations. …………….215
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). ………………………..215
Council of American Building Officials (CABO). …………………..215
Building and Fire Codes. …………………………………………………………215
Benefits of a Code Enforcement System. ……………………………………216
Impact of Codes and Standards. ………………………………………………..216
Summary. ………………………………………………………………………………216
References. …………………………………………………………………………….216
Appendix E: A Model Fire Plan for an Elementary School. ……………………….217
Fire Plan for an Elementary School: Facility Overview. ………………217
Purpose. …………………………………………………………………………….217
Introduction. ………………………………………………………………………218
Physical Location. ………………………………………………………………218
Building Description and Layout. …………………………………………219
Occupant Characteristics/Load. ……………………………………………219
Emergency Systems and Contact Information. …………………..219
Fire Codes/Life Safety Codes. ………………………………………………….220
Fire Codes That Pertain to Elementary Schools. …………………….220
Means of Egress Requirements. ……………………………………………220
Electrical. …………………………………………………………………………..221
Fire Department Information. …………………………………………………..221
Fire Safety Checklist. ………………………………………………………………221
Sprinkler System. ……………………………………………………………….221
Fire Extinguishers. ……………………………………………………………..222
Exit Signs/Emergency Lights. ………………………………………………222
Additional Checks. ……………………………………………………………..222
Fire Suppression: Points of Interest. …………………………………………..222
Equipment. …………………………………………………………………………222
Portable Fire Extinguishers. …………………………………………………222
Class A Fire. ………………………………………………………………….222
Class B Fire. ………………………………………………………………….222
Class C Fire. ………………………………………………………………….223
Class D Fire. ………………………………………………………………….223
Egress. ………………………………………………………………………………223
Annunciator Panel. ……………………………………………………………..223
Sprinklers. …………………………………………………………………………223
Fire Hoses (Not Applicable). ………………………………………………..224
Stand Hoses (Not Applicable). ……………………………………………..224
Standpipes (Not Applicable). ………………………………………………..224
Emergency Lighting. …………………………………………………………..224
Fire Plan. ……………………………………………………………………………….224
Responsibilities. ………………………………………………………………….226
Integrated Response Plan. ……………………………………………………226
Fire Prevention. ………………………………………………………………………226
Education and Training. ………………………………………………………226
Faculty Should Be Trained in the Following. ……………………..226
Students Should Be Trained in the Following. ……………………226
Hazard Risk Assessment. …………………………………………………….227
Elementary School Assessment Focus. ………………………………….227
Hazard Assessment Form. ……………………………………………………228
Fire Drill. ……………………………………………………………………………….228
Fire Drill Safety Procedures………………………………………………..228
Fire Drills. …………………………………………………………………………228
Fire Drill Procedure. …………………………………………………………..229
Fire Drills. …………………………………………………………………………229
Conclusion. …………………………………………………………………………….230
Housekeeping. ……………………………………………………………………230
Fire Extinguishers. ……………………………………………………………..231
Emergency Lighting. …………………………………………………………..233
Fire Alarm That Is Covered. ………………………………………………..234
Electrical Boxes Open. ………………………………………………………..235
Open Wires. ……………………………………………………………………….236
Sprinklers Blocked/Boxes Higher Than Them. ………………………237
Fire Exits Blocked and Tripping Hazards While Exiting. ………..238
Chemicals on Open Shelf. ……………………………………………………240
Definitions. …………………………………………………………………………….241

Preface

Since the second edition of this book, some things have not changed and others have.
The need for safety professionals to understand basic fundamentals is essential in
hazard recognition, evaluation, control measures, and the standards to ensure compliance
with current required fire codes. The safety manager today faces a moral and
legal responsibility to the community, worksite, and to the public. Safety managers
need an understanding of the duties and responsibilities for which they are accountable.
The primary purpose of the Fire Safety Management Handbook is to integrate
a broad field, including the National Fire Codes (NFPA), into a single manuscript
that deals with all aspects of the fire sciences.
This text presents the key elements that comprise an effective fire safety management
program. It was written for fire safety professionals, safety managers, scientists,
and college instructors as a useful reference in dealing with the varied problems of
flammable hazardous materials as well as managers who are accountable for fire
safety as part of a comprehensive safety and/or a risk management program.
Safety programs are typically evaluated based upon the results they achieve for
their respective organizations. Tangible results of any safety program can be difficult
to measure. Over the years, the profession has evaluated safety program effectiveness
by measuring the failures produced, such as accident frequency and severity
rates, or property loss rates. Measuring safety programs by their failures is counterproductive.
By the time any safety program produces the failures to measure, it is
too late for managers to implement activities that could have prevented those failures
from occurring in the first place.
While the safety profession has never proven that a direct correlation exists
between various safety program activities and achieving favorable program results,
safety managers strive to identify the possible relationships. Successful safety managers
place an emphasis—such as their time and organizational resources—on
implementing proactive activities that impact the results of their safety programs.
Safety program effectiveness should be measured by the quality, rigor, and utility of
these activities, as well as their impact on the bottom line.
Having established that an effective safety program emphasizes proactive activities,
this text places special attention on the fire safety activities that can achieve the
most optimum results. Developing and implementing an effective fire safety management
program can:
• Reduce property loss insurance premiums.
• Demonstrate why certain practices are being used.
• Help minimize the financial impact of business interruptions.
• Boost customer service and public images.
• Foster an efficient work environment to help realize quality gains.
• Impact favorably on the profitability of an organization.
• Evaluate building construction.
Special attention has been given to fire safety activities that achieve results. These activities are explained in each chapter.