Electrical Engineering Principles and Applications SIXTH EDITION Allan R. Hambley

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Contents

Practical Applications of
Electrical Engineering Principles vi
Preface xi
Introduction 1
1.1 Overview of Electrical Engineering 2
1.2 Circuits, Currents, and Voltages 6
1.3 Power and Energy 13
1.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 16
1.5 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 19
1.6 Introduction to Circuit Elements 22
1.7 Introduction to Circuits 30
Summary 34
Problems 35
Resistive Circuits 46
2.1 Resistances in Series and Parallel 47
2.2 Network Analysis by Using Series
and Parallel Equivalents 51
2.3 Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider
Circuits 55
2.4 Node-Voltage Analysis 60
2.5 Mesh-Current Analysis 79
2.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent
Circuits 88
2.7 Superposition Principle 101
2.8 Wheatstone Bridge 104
Summary 107
Problems 109
Inductance and Capacitance 124
3.1 Capacitance 125
3.2 Capacitances in Series and Parallel 132
3.3 Physical Characteristics of
Capacitors 134
3.4 Inductance 138
3.5 Inductances in Series
and Parallel 143
3.6 Practical Inductors 144
3.7 Mutual Inductance 147
3.8 Symbolic Integration and
Differentiation Using MATLAB 148
Summary 152
Problems 153
4 Transients 162
4.1 First-Order RC Circuits 163
4.3 RL Circuits 169
4.4 RC and RL Circuits with General
Sources 173
4.5 Second-Order Circuits 179
4.6 Transient Analysis Using the MATLAB
Symbolic Toolbox 191
Summary 197
Problems 198
5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 210
5.2 Phasors 216
5.3 Complex Impedances 222
5.4 Circuit Analysis with Phasors and
Complex Impedances 225
5.5 Power inAC Circuits 231
5.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent
Circuits 244
5.7 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 249
5.8 AC Analysis Using MATLAB 261
Summary 265
Problems 266
Frequency Response, Bode Plots,
and Resonance 278
6.1 Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer
Functions 279
6.2 First-Order Lowpass Filters 287
and Logarithmic Frequency Scales 292
6.4 Bode Plots 296
6.5 First-Order Highpass Filters 299
6.6 Series Resonance 303
6.7 Parallel Resonance 308
6.8 Ideal and Second-Order Filters 311
6.9 Transfer Functions and Bode Plots
with MATLAB 317
6.10 Digital Signal Processing 322
Summary 331
Problems 333
Logic Circuits 347
7.1 Basic Logic Circuit Concepts 348
7.2 Representation of Numerical Data
in Binary Form 351
7.3 Combinatorial Logic Circuits 359
7.4 Synthesis of Logic Circuits 366
7.5 Minimization of Logic Circuits 373
7.6 Sequential Logic Circuits 377
Summary 388
Problems 389
Computers and Microcontrollers 400
8.1 Computer Organization 401
8.2 Memory Types 404
8.3 Digital Process Control 406
8.4 ProgrammingModelfor the HCS12/9S12
Family 409
8.5 The Instruction Set and Addressing
Modes for the CPU12 413
8.6 Assembly-Language Programming 422
Summary 427
Problems 428
9
Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 433
9.1 Measurement Concepts
and Sensors 434
9.2 Signal Conditioning 439
9.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 446
9.4 LabVIEW 449
Summary 462
Problems 463
Diodes 467
10.1 Basic Diode Concepts 468
Circuits 471
10.3 Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator
Circuits 474
10.4 Ideal-Diode Model 478
10.5 Piecewise-Linear Diode Models 480
10.6 Rectifier Circuits 483
10.7 Wave-Shaping Circuits 488
10.8 Linear Small-Signal Equivalent
Circuits 493
Summary 499
Problems 499
11
Amplifiers: Specifications and External
Characteristics 511
11.1 Basic Amplifier Concepts 512
11.3 Power Supplies and Efficiency 520
11.5 Importance of Amplifier Impedances
in Various Applications 526
11.6 Ideal Amplifiers 529
11.7 Frequency Response 530
11.8 LinearWaveform Distortion 535
11.9 Pulse Response 539
11.10 Transfer Characteristic and Nonlinear
Distortion 542
11.11 Differential Amplifiers 544
11.12 Offset Voltage, Bias Current,
and Offset Current 548
Summary 553
Problems 554
Contents ix
12
Field-Effect Transistors 566
12.1 NMOS and PMOS Transistors 567
12.2 Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS
Amplifier 574
12.3 Bias Circuits 577
12.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 580
12.5 Common-Source Amplifiers 585
12.6 Source Followers 588
12.7 CMOS Logic Gates 593
Summary 598
Problems 599
13
Bipolar Junction Transistors 607
13.1 Current and Voltage Relationships 608
13.2 Common-Emitter Characteristics 611
Common-Emitter Amplifier 612
13.4 pnp Bipolar Junction Transistors 618
13.5 Large-Signal DC Circuit Models 620
13.6 Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT
Circuits 623
13.7 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 630
13.8 Common-Emitter Amplifiers 633
13.9 Emitter Followers 638
Summary 644
Problems 645
14
Operational Amplifiers 655
14.1 Ideal Operational Amplifiers 656
14.2 Inverting Amplifiers 657
14.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 664
14.4 Design of Simple Amplifiers 667
14.5 Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear
Range of Operation 672
14.6 Nonlinear Limitations 676
14.7 DC Imperfections 681
14.8 Differential and Instrumentation
Amplifiers 685
14.9 Integrators and Differentiators 687
14.10 Active Filters 690
Summary 694
Problems 695
15
Magnetic Circuits and
Transformers 708
15.1 Magnetic Fields 709
15.2 Magnetic Circuits 718
15.3 Inductance and Mutual Inductance 723
15.4 Magnetic Materials 727
15.5 Ideal Transformers 731
15.6 Real Transformers 738
Summary 743
Problems 743
16
DC Machines 754
16.1 Overview of Motors 755
16.2 Principles of DC Machines 764
16.3 Rotating DC Machines 769
16.4 Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited
DC Motors 775
16.5 Series-Connected DC Motors 780
16.6 Speed Control of DC Motors 784
16.7 DC Generators 788
Summary 793
Problems 794
17
AC Machines 803
17.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors 804
17.2 Equivalent-Circuit and Performance
Calculations for Induction
Motors 812
17.3 Synchronous Machines 821
17.4 Single-Phase Motors 833
17.5 Stepper Motors and Brushless
DC Motors 836
Summary 838
Problems 839
APPENDICES
A
Complex Numbers 845
Summary 852
Problems 852
x Contents
B
Nominal Values and the Color Code for
Resistors 854
C
The Fundamentals of Engineering
Examination 856
D
Answers for the Practice Tests 860
E
On-Line Student Resources 868
Index 869

Preface

As in the previous editions, my guiding philosophy in writing this book has three
elements. The first element is my belief that in the long run students are best served
by learning basic concepts in a general setting. Second, I believe that students need to
be motivated by seeing how the principles apply to specific and interesting problems
in their own fields. The third element of my philosophy is to take every opportunity
to make learning free of frustration for the student.
This book covers circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics
at a level appropriate for either electrical-engineering students in an introductory
course or nonmajors in a survey course. The only essential prerequisites are basic
physics and single-variable calculus.Teaching a course using this book offers opportunities
to develop theoretical and experimental skills and experiences in the following
areas:
Basic circuit analysis and measurement
First- and second-order transients
Resonance and frequency response
Digital logic circuits
Microcontrollers
Computer-based instrumentation, including LabVIEW
Diode circuits
Electronic amplifiers
Field-effect and bipolar junction transistors
Operational amplifiers
Transformers
Ac and dc machines
Computer-aided circuit analysis using MATLAB
While the emphasis of this book is on basic concepts, a key feature is the inclusion
of short articles scattered throughout showing how electrical-engineering concepts
are applied in other fields. The subjects of these articles include anti-knock signal
processing for internal combustion engines, a cardiac pacemaker, active noise control,
and the use of RFID tags in fisheries research, among others.