Efficient Boiler Operations Sourcebook

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Efficient Boiler Operations Sourcebook

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Contents

Introduction xi
Chapter 1
Boiler Combustion Fundamentals1
Fuel Characteristics3
Boiler Configurations and Components4
Fuel Handling and Firing Systems12
Combustion Control Systems13
Chapter 2
Boiler Efficiency Goals20
Chapter 3
Major Factors Controlling Boiler Efficiency29
Waste Heat Losses in Stack Gases30
Losses Due to Incomplete Combustion32
Boiler Firing Rate39
Chapter 4
Boiler Efficiency Calculations45
Calculation Methods45
Input-Output Methods48
Heat Loss Method48
ASME Computational Procedures49
Chapter 5
Heat Loss Graphical Solutions55
Abbreviated Efficiency Improvement Determinations62
Chapter 6
Preparation for Boiler Testing67
Stack Instrumentation67
Stack Sampling Techniques70
Flame Appearance70
Chapter 7
An Update and Overview of Flue Gas Measurement73
Page viii
Chapter 8
Boiler Test Procedures87
Burner Adjustments92
Chapter 9
Efficiency-Related Boiler Maintenance Procedures93
Efficiency Spotcheck94
Establishing Performance Goals94
Performance Monitoring (Boiler Log)95
Periodic Equipment Inspection8
Performance
Troubleshooting98
Performance Deficiency Costs101
Chapter 10
Boiler Tune-Up105
Boiler Tube Cleanliness108
Determining Maintenance Requirements109
Special Maintenance Items110
Chapter 11
Boiler Operational Modifications113
Reduced Boiler Steam Pressures113
Water Quality
ControlBlowdown114
Chapter 12
Effect of Water Side and Gas Side Scale Deposits117
Water Side Scale118
Gas Side Scale20
Chapter 13
Load
Management121
Fuel Conversions123
Chapter 14
Auxiliary Equipment to Increase Boiler EfficiencyAir Preheaters and Economizers125
Air PreheatersOperating Principles125
Types of Air
Preheaters129
Economizers137
Chapter 15
Other Types of Auxiliary Equipment143
Firetube Turbulators143
Page ix
Oil and Gas Burners and Supply Systems145
Water Side Waste Heat Recovery149
Wall and Soot Blowers155
Insulation157
Chapter 16
Combustion Control Systems and InstrumentationM.J. Slevin
165
Chapter 17
Boiler O2 Trim ControlsM.J. Slevin175
Chapter 18
Steam Distribution System EfficienciesHarry Taplin, P.E.187
Chapter 19
Should You Purchase a New Boiler?195
Chapter 20
Financial EvaluationProcedures199
Performance Deficiency Costs199
First- and Second-Level Measures of Performance200
Marginal Analysis204
Chapter 21
A Comprehensive “Boiler Tune-Up” (BTU) Program
Steven A. Parker, P.E., CEM207
Chapter 22
Case
Studies229
Natural Gas Fuel229
Oil Fuel237
Pulverized Coal237
Stoker-Fired
Coal245
Chapter 23
Tuning Large Industrial Boilers251
Large Boiler Characteristics251
Importance of Diagnostic Testing
Fuel Storage, Handling andPreparation254

Page x
Non-Optimum Excess Air Levels
258
Combustion Uniformity
263
Synopsis of Diagnostic Techniques
270
Chapter 24
Large Industrial Boiler NOx Control
275
Regulatory Driving Forces
275
NOx Control Options
276
Appendix A
Combustion-Generated Air Pollutants
293
Appendix B
Conversion Factors
301
Index 305
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