Civil Engineering Formulas

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Civil Engineering Formulas


The second edition of this handy book presents some 2,500 formulas and calculation
guides for civil engineers to help them in the design office, in the field,
and on a variety of construction jobs, anywhere in the world. These formulas
and guides are also useful to design drafters, structural engineers, bridge engineers,
foundation builders, field engineers, professional-engineer license examination
candidates, concrete specialists, timber-structure builders, and students
in a variety of civil engineering pursuits.
The book presents formulas needed in 13 different specialized branches of
civil engineering—beams and girders, columns, piles and piling, concrete
structures, timber engineering, surveying, soils and earthwork, building structures,
bridges, suspension cables, highways and roads, hydraulics and open
channel flow, stormwater, sewage, sanitary wastewater, and environmental
protection. Some 500 formulas and guides have been added to this second edition
of the book.
Key formulas are presented for each of the major topics listed above.
Each formula is explained so the engineer, drafter, or designer knows how,
where, and when to use the formula in professional work. Formula units are
given in both the United States Customary System (USCS) and System
International (SI). Hence, the content of this book is usable throughout the
world. To assist the civil engineer using these formulas in worldwide engineering
practice, a comprehensive tabulation of conversion factors is presented
in Chap. 1.
New content is this second edition spans the world of civil engineering.
Specific new topics include columns for supporting commercial wind turbines
used in onshore and offshore renewable energy projects, design of axially
loaded steel columns, strain energy in structural members, shaft twist formulas,
new retaining wall formulas and data, solid-wood rectangular column design,
blasting operations for earth and rock removal or relocation, hydraulic turbines
for power generation, dams of several types (arch, buttress, earth), comparisons
of key hydraulic formulas (Darcy, Manning, Hazen-Williams), and a complete
new chapter on stormwater, sewage, sanitary wastewater, and environmental
In assembling this collection of formulas, the author was guided by experts
who recommended the areas of greatest need for a handy book of practical and
applied civil engineering formulas.
Sources for the formulas presented here include the various regulatory and
industry groups in the field of civil engineering, authors of recognized books on
important topics in the field, drafters, researchers in the field of civil engineering,
and a number of design engineers who work daily in the field of civil engineering.
These sources are cited in the Acknowledgments.
When using any of the formulas in this book that may come from an industry
or regulatory code, the user is cautioned to consult the latest version of the
code. Formulas may be changed from one edition of code to the next. In a work
of this magnitude it is difficult to include the latest formulas from the numerous
constantly changing codes. Hence, the formulas given here are those current at
the time of publication of this book.
In a work this large it is possible that errors may occur. Hence, the author
will be grateful to any user of the book who detects an error and calls it to the
author’s attention. Just write the author in care of the publisher. The error will
be corrected in the next printing.
In addition, if a user believes that one or more important formulas have been
left out, the author will be happy to consider them for inclusion in the next edition
of the book. Again, just write to him in care of the publisher.