CENTRAL BOILER PLANTS

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CENTRAL BOILER PLANTS

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CENTRAL BOILER PLANTS

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Introduction
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l-l
Central Boiler Plants …………………………………. 1-2
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ….l-3
Elementary Combustion Principles
Fossil Fuels ………………………………………… 1-4
Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .l-5
Combustion of Coal …………………………………… 1-6
Combustion of Oil ……………………………………. 1-7
Combustion of Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Soot and Smoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Flue Gas Analysis and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Combustion Efficiency …………………………………. 1-11
Boiler Efficiency. ……………………………………… 1-12
Central Boiler Plant Efficiency …………………………… 1-13
Principles of Steam and Hot Water Generation
Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Heat Transfer ……………………………………….. 1-15
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
Boilers and Heat Exchangers
Boiler Classifications …………………………………… 2-1
Boiler Design Requirements 2-2 2 – 1
F a b r i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -3
Fire Tube Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Water Tube Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Hot Water Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Economizers…………………………………………………. 2-7
Air Heaters………………………………………………….2-8
Boiler Accessories and Fittings
ASME Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9
Gage Glass, Gage Cocks ……………………………….. 2-10
Water Columns ………………………………………. 2-11
Pressure Gage, Temperature Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Safety Valves ………………………………………….2-13
Boiler Outlet Valves …………………………………… 2-14
Blowoff Valves and Piping. ……………………………… 2-15
Fusible Plugs ……………………………………….. 2-16
Sootblowers ………………………………………… 2-17
Fuel- Handling and Combustion Equipment