Burner Handbook by FORCED DRAUGHT

Pages 169
Views 344
Size 9.0 MiB
Downloads 47
Burner Handbook by FORCED DRAUGHT

Tags:

Contents

1 FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION PRINCIPLES 13
1.1. Basic reactions 13
1.2. The combustion supporter 13
1.3. The combustion supporter 14
1.3.1. Gaseous fuels and their combustion 16
1.3.2. Liquid fuels and their combustion 21
1.4. Pollutant combustion emissions 21
1.4.1. Sulphur oxides 22
1.4.2. Nitric oxides 22
1.4.2.1. Reduction of the NOx in gaseous fuel combustion 23
1.4.2.2. Reduction of the NOx in liquid fuel combustion 25
1.4.3. Carbon monoxide (CO) 25
1.4.4. Total suspended particles 26
1.4.5. Comments on the emission of CO2 27
1.5. Combustion control 27
1.5.1. Combustion efficiency 29
1.5.2. Measurement units for combustion emissions 29
2 THE FORCED DRAUGHT BURNER 31
2.1 Foreword 31
2.2 The firing range of a burner 32
2.3 Typical system layout diagrams 35
2.3.1 System engineering diagrams for fired burners 36
2.3.2 System engineering diagrams for burners using
low viscosity (< 6 cSt) liquid fuels – diesel oil / kerosene 36
2.3.3 System engineering diagrams for burners using
high viscosity (> 6 cSt) liquid fuels 37
2.3.4 Diagrams for the calibration of single-stage burners 38
2.3.5 Diagrams for the calibration of multi-stage burners 39
2.3.6 Diagrams for the calibration of modulating burners 39
2.3.7 Diagram of burner with measurement and regulation
of the percentage of O2 in the flue gases 40
2.3.8 Diagram of burner with pre-heating of the combustion supporter air 40
2.3.9 Diagram of burner with inverter controlled motors 41
2.3.10 Layout of the Burner Management -System 41
2.4 The Combustion head 42
2.4.1 Pressure drop air side 43
2.4.2 Pressure drop fuel side 43
2.5 The Fan 44
2.5.1 Regulating combustion air 46
SUMMARY
2.6 Fuel supply 48
2.6.1 Gas supply 48
2.6.1.1 Calculating the fuel gas supply pipelines 50
2.6.1.2 Choosing the gas train 52
2.6.1.3 The feeding of liquid petroleum gases (LPG) 53
2.6.2 Feeding diesel oil and kerosene 55
2.6.2.1 Drop-type system with supply from bottom / drop-type system
with supply from summit / intake type system; 56
2.6.2.2 Systems with pressurised ring 57
2.6.3 Feeding of heavy oil (fuel oil) 61
2.6.3.1 Ring-type systems for multi-stage burners with or without
service tanks (type 1-3) 62
2.6.3.2 Ring-type systems for modulating burners with or without service tanks 66
2.6.3.3 Heating the pipelines 67
2.6.3.4 Heating the storage tanks 70
2.7 Electrical supply and burner control 71
2.8 Noise levels in forced draught burners 74
2.8.1 Deadening noise made by forced draught burners 77
2.9 Optimising combustion with forced draught burners 78
2.9.1 Regulating the O2 78
2.9.2 Pre-heating the combustion supporter air 80
2.9.3 Regulating the fan speed 80
2.9.4 The Burner Management System 81
3 SELECTION OF A FORCED DRAUGHT BURNER 83
3.1 General criteria 83
3.1.1 Thermal capacity at the heat generator furnace 83
3.1.2 Back pressure in the combustion chamber 85
3.1.3 Type of heat generator 85
3.1.4 Fuel 86
3.1.5 Burner operation mode 86
3.1.6 Minimum feed pressure of gaseous fuel 86
3.1.7 Installation altitude and average combustion air temperature 86
3.1.8 Special installation features 87
3.2 Selection of a monobloc burner – numeric example 87
3.2.1 Selection of the burner model 87
3.2.2 Selection of the combustion head length 91
3.2.3 Verifying the flame length 91
3.2.4 Selection of the gas train 92
3.2.5 Selection of the components for the diesel oil feed circuit 93
3.3 Selection of a DUALBLOC burner – numeric example 94
3.3.1 Selection of the burner model 94
3.3.2 Selection of the burner model 96
3.3.3 Selection of the gas train 100
3.3.4 Selection of the thrust unit for liquid fuel and the nozzles 102
3.3.5 Selection of the components in the liquid fuel feed circuit 104
SUMMARY
3.3.5.1 Transfer pump between the storage tank and the service tank 105
3.3.5.2 Service tank 105
3.3.5.3 Pump in the main ring 105
3.3.5.4 Dimensioning the main ring pipelines 106
3.3.6 Selection of the electrical control panel 107
4 MEASURING COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY 109
4.1 Instruments 109
4.2 Preliminary operations 109
4.2.1 Systems fired by liquid fuel 109
4.2.2 Systems fired by gaseous fuel 109
4.3 Measurement conditions and operating methods 110
4.4 Calculating the combustion efficiency 111
4.4.1 Example for calculating combustion efficiency 111
5 READY-USE TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 115
5.1 Measuring units and conversion factors 115
5.2 Tables and diagrams about fuel viscosity 129
5.3 Tables and diagrams for circuits dimensioning 134
5.4 Tables and diagrams about combustion 156