Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow Second Edition by L. S. Tong

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Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow Second Edition by L. S. Tong



Preface xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Symbols xix
Unit Conversions xxix
1.1 Regimes of boiling 1
1.2 Two-Phase Flow 3
1.3 Flow Boiling Crisis 4
1.4 Flow Instability 4
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Nucleation and Dynamics of Single Bubbles 7
2.2.1 Nucleation 8
2.2.1 .1 Nucleation in a Pure Liquid 8
2.2.1 .2 Nucleation at Surfaces 10
2.2.2 Waiting Period 19
2.2.3 Isothermal Bubble Dynamics 23
2.2.4 Isobaric Bubble Dynamics 26
2.2.5 Bubble Departure from a Heated Surface 37 Bubble Size at Departure Departure Frequency Boiling Sound Latent Heat Transport and Microconvection by
Departing Bubbles Evaporation-of-Microlayer Theory
2.3 Hydrodynamics of Pool Boiling Process
2.3.1 The Helmholtz Instability
2.3.2 The Taylor Instability
2.4 Pool Boiling Heat Transfer
2.4.1 Dimensional Analysis Commonly Used Nondimensional Groups Boiling Models
2.4.2 Correlation of Nucleate Boiling Data Nucleate Pool Boiling of Ordinary Liquids Nucleate Pool Boiling with Liquid Metals
2.4.3 Pool Boiling Crisis Pool Boiling Crisis in Ordinary Liquids Boiling Crisis with Liquid Metals
2.4.4 Film Boiling in a Pool Film Boiling in Ordinary Liquids Film Boiling in Liquid Metals
2.5 Additional References for Further Study
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Flow Patterns in Adiabatic and Diabatic Flows
3.2.1 Flow Patterns in Adiabatic Flow
3.2.2 Flow Pattern Transitions in Adiabatic Flow Pattern Transition in Horizontal Adiabatic Flow Pattern Transition in Vertical Adiabatic Flow Adiabatic Flow in Rod Bundles Liquid Metal-Gas Two-Phase Systems
3.2.3 Flow Patterns in Diabatic Flow
3.3 Void Fraction and Slip Ratio in Diabatic Flow
3.3.1 Void Fraction in Subcooled Boiling Flow
3.3.2 Void Fraction in Saturated Boiling Flow
3.3.3 Diabatic Liquid Metal-Gas Two-Phase Flow
3.3.4 Instrumentation Void Distribution Measurement Interfacial Area Measurement Measurement of the Velocity of a Large Particle Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness
3.4 Modeling of Two-Phase Flow
3.4.1 Homogeneous Model/Drift Flux Model
3.4.2 Separate-Phase Model (Two-Fluid Model)
3.4.3 Models for Flow Pattern Transition
3.4.4 Models for Bubbly Flow
3.4.5 Models for Slug Flow (Taitel and Barnea, 1 990)
3.4.6 Models for Annular Flow Falling Film Flow Countercurrent Two-Phase Annular Flow Inverted Annular and Dispersed Flow
3.4.7 Models for Stratified Flow (Horizontal Pipes)
3.4.8 Models for Transient Two-Phase Flow Transient Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes Transient Slug Flow Transient Two-Phase Flow in Rod Bundles
3.5 Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Flow
3.5.1 Local Pressure Drop
3.5.2 Analytical Models for Pressure Drop Prediction Bubbly Flow Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow
3.5.3 Empirical Correlations Bubbly Flow in Horizontal Pipes Slug Flow Annular Flow Correlations for Liquid Metal and Other Fluid
3.5.4 Pressure Drop in Rod Bundles Steady Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop in Transient Flow
3.5.5 Pressure Drop in Flow Restriction Steady-State, Two-Phase-Flow Pressure Drop Transient Two-Phase-Flow Pressure Drop
3.6 Critical Flow and Unsteady Flow
3.6.1 Critical Flow in Long Pipes
3.6.2 Critical Flow in Short Pipes, Nozzles, and Orifices
3.6.3 Blowdown Experiments Experiments with Tubes Vessel Blowdown
3.6.4 Propagation of Pressure Pulses and Waves Pressure Pulse Propagation Sonic Wave Propagation Relationship Among Critical Discharge Rate,
Pressure Propagation Rate, and Sonic Velocity
3.7 Additional References for Further Study
4.2.1 Subcooled Nucleate Flow Boiling Partial Nucleate Flow Boiling Fully Developed Nucleate Flow Boiling
4.2.2 Saturated Nucleate Flow Boiling Saturated Nucleate Flow Boiling of Ordinary
Liquids Saturated Nucleate Flow Boiling of Liquid Metals
4.3 Forced-Convection Vaporization
4.3.1 Correlations for Forced-Convection Vaporization
4.3.2 Effect of Fouling Boiling Surface
4.3.3 Correlations for Liquid Metals
4.4 Film Boiling and Heat Transfer in Liquid-Deficient Regions
4.4.1 Partial Film Boiling (Transition Boiling)
4.4.2 Stable Film Boiling Film Boiling in Rod Bundles
4.4.3 Mist Heat Transfer in Dispersed Flow Dispersed Flow Model Dryout Droplet Diameter Calculation
4.4.4 Transient Cooling Blowdown Heat Transfer Heat Transfer in Emergency Core Cooling Systems Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Analysis
4.4.5 Liquid-Metal Channel Voiding and Expulsion Models
4.5 Additional References for Further Study
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Physical Mechanisms of Flow Boiling Crisis in Visual Observations
5.2.1 Photographs of Flow Boiling Crisis
5.2.2 Evidence of Surface Dryout in Annular Flow
5.2.3 Summary of Observed Results
5.3 Microscopic Analysis of CHF Mechanisms
5.3.1 Liquid Core Convection and Boundary-Layer Effects
5.3.1 .1 Liquid Core Temperature and Velocity
Distribution Analysis Boundary-Layer Separation and Reynolds Flux Subcooled Core Liquid Exchange and Interface
5.3.2 Bubble-Layer Thermal Shielding Analysis Interface Mixing 336 Mass and Energy Balance in the Bubble Layer 342
5.3.3 Liquid Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in High-
Quality Flow 343
5.3.4 CHF Scaling Criteria and Correlations for Various Fluids 351 Scaling Criteria 351 CHF Correlations for Organic Coolants and
Refrigerants 357 CHF Correlations for Liquid Metals 360
5.4 Parameter Effects on CHF in Experiments 366
5.4.1 Pressure Effects 367
5.4.2 Mass Flux Effects 369 Inverse Mass Flux Effects 369 Downward Flow Effects 373
5.4.3 Local Enthalpy Effects 377
5.4.4 CHF Table of p-G-X Effects 378
5.4.5 Channel Size and Cold Wall Effects 378 Channel Size Effect 378 Effect of Unheated Wall in Proximity to the CHF
Point 379 Effect of Dissolved Gas and Volatile Additives 382
5.4.6 Channel Length and Inlet Enthalpy Effects and Orientation
Effects 383 Channel Length and Inlet Enthalpy Effects 383 Critical Heat Flux in Horizontal Tubes 387
5.4.7 Local Flow Obstruction and Surface Property Effects 391 Flow Obstruction Effects 391 Effect of Surface Roughness 391 Wall T hermal Capacitance Effects 392 Effects of Ribs or Spacers 393 Hot-Patch Length Effects 394 Effects of Rod Bowing 395 Effects of Rod Spacing 395 Coolant Property (D20 and H20) Effects on CHF 396 Effects of Nuclear Heating 397
5.4.8 Flow Instability Effects 398
5.4.9 Reactor Transient Effects 399
5.5 Operating Parameter Correlations for CHF Predictions in Reactor
Design 401
5.5.1 W-3 CHF Correlation and THINC-II Subchannel Codes 405 W-3 CHF Correlation 405 THINC II Code Verification 410
5.5.2 B & W-2 CHF Correlation (Gellerstedt et al., 1969) 415 Correlation for Uniform Heat Flux 415 Correlation for Nonuniform Heat Flux 416
5.5.3 CE-l CHF Correlation (C-E Report, 1975, 1976) 416
5.5.4 WSC-2 CHF Correlation and HAMBO Code 417 Bowring CHF Correlation for Uniform Heat Flux
(Bowring, 1972) WSC-2 Correlation and HAMBO Code
Verification (Bowring, 1979)
5.5.5 Columbia CHF Correlation and Verification CHF Correlation for Uniform Heat Flux COBR A IIIC Verification (Reddy and Fighetti,
1983) Russian Data Correlation of Ryzhov and
Arkhipow (1985)
5.5.6 Cincinnati CHF Correlation and Modified Model Cincinnati CHF Correlation and COBR A IIIC
Verification An Improved CHF Model for Low-Quality Flow
5.5.7 A.R.S. CHF Correlation CHF Correlation with Uniform Heating Extension A.R.S. CHF Correlation to Nonuniform
Heating Comparison of A.R.S. Correlation with
Experimental Data
5.5.8 Effects of Boiling Length: CISE-l and CISE-3 CHF
Correlations CISE- l Correlation CISE-3 Correlation for Rod Bundles (Bertoletti
et al., 1965)
5.5.9 GE Lower-Envelope CHF Correlation and CISE-GE
Correlation GE Lower-Envelope CHF Correlation GE Approximate Dryout Correlation (GE Report,
5.5.10 Whalley Dryout Predictions in a Round Tube (Whalley
et al., 1973)
5.5.11 Levy’s Dryout Prediction with Entrainment Parameter
5.5.12 Recommendations on Evaluation of CHF Margin in
Reactor Design
5.6 Additional References for Further Study
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Classification of Flow Instabilities
6.2 Physical Mechanisms and Observations of Flow Instabilities
6.2.1 Static Instabilities Simple Static Instability Simple (Fundamental) Relaxation Instability Compound Relaxation Instability
6.2.2 Dynamic Instabilities Simple Dynamic Instability Compound Dynamic Instability Compound Dynamic Instabilities as Secondary
6.3 Observed Parametric Effects on Flow Instability
6.3.1 Effect of Pressure on Flow Instability
6.3.2 Effect of Inlet and Exit Restrictions on Flow Instability
6.3.3 Effect of Inlet Subcooling on Flow Instability
6.3.4 Effect of Channel Length on Flow Instability
6.3.5 Effects of Bypass Ratio of Parallel Channels
6.3.6 Effects of Mass Flux and Power
6.3.7 Effect of Nonuniform Heat Flux
6.4 Theoretical Analysis
6.4.1 Analysis of Static Instabilities Analysis of Simple (Fundamental) Static
Instabilities Analysis of Simple Relaxation Instabilities Analysis of Compound Relaxation Instabilities
6.4.2 Analysis of Dynamic Instabilities Analysis of Simple Dynamic Instabilities Analysis of Compound Dynamic Instabilities Analysis of Compound Dynamic Instabilities as
Secondary Phenomena (Pressure Drop
6.5 Flow Instability Predictions and Additional References for Further
6.5.1 Recommended Steps for Instability Predictions
6.5.2 Additional References for Further Study
APPENDIX Subchannel Analysis (Tong and Weisman, 1979)
A. l Mathematical Representation
A.2 Computer Solutions


Since the original publication of Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow by L. S.
Tong almost three decades ago, studies of boiling heat transfer and two-phase
flow have gone from the stage of blooming literature to near maturity. Progress
undoubtedly has been made in many aspects, such as the modeling of two-phase
flow, the evaluation of and experimentation on the forced-convection boiling crisis
as well as heat transfer beyond the critical heat flux conditions, and extended research
in liquid-metal boiling. This book reexamines the accuracy of existing, generally
available correlations by comparing them with updated data and thereby
providing designers with more reliable information for predicting the thermal hydraulic
behavior of boiling devices. The objectives of this edition are twofold:
1 . To provide engineering students with up-to-date knowledge about boiling heat
transfer and two-phase flow from which a consistent and thorough understanding
may be formed.
2. To provide designers with formulas for predicting real or potential boiling heat
transfer behavior, in both steady and transient states.
The chapter structure remains close to that of the first edition, although significant
expansion in scope has been made, reflecting the extensive progress advanced
during this period. At the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1 ), additional,
recent references are given for researchers’ outside study.
Emphasis is on applications, so some judgments based on our respective experiences
have been applied in the treatment of these subjects. Various workers from
international resources are contributing to the advancement of this complicated
field. To them we would like to express our sincere congratulations for their valuable
contributions. We are much indebted to Professors C. L. Tien and G. F. Hewitt
for their review of the preliminary manuscript. Gratitude is also due to the


In recent years, boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow have achieved worldwide
interest, primarily because of their application in nuclear reactors and rockets.
Many papers have been published and many ideas have been introduced in this
field, but some of them are inconsistent with others. This book assembles information
concerning boiling by presenting the original opinions and then investigating
their individual areas of agreement and also of disagreement, since disagreements
generally provide future investigators with a basis for the verification of truth.
The objectives of this book are
1 . To provide colleges and universities with a textbook that describes the present
state of knowledge about boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow.
2. To provide research workers with a concise handbook that summarizes literature
surveys in this field.
3 . To provide designers with useful correlations by comparing such correlations
with existing data and presenting correlation uncertainties whenever possible.
This is an engineering textbook, and it aims to improve the performance of
boiling equipment. Hence, it emphasizes the boiling crisis and flow instability. The
first five chapters, besides being important in their own right, serve as preparation
for understanding boiling crisis and flow instability.
Portions of this text were taken from lecture notes of an evening graduate
course conducted by me at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, during
1 96 1-1 964.
Of the many valuable papers and reports on boiling heat transfer and twophase
flow that have been published, these general references are recommended:
“Boiling of Liquid,” by 1. W Westwater, in Advances in Chemica l Engineering 1


( 1 956) and 2 ( 1 958), edited by T. B. Drew and 1. W Hoopes, Jr. , Academic
Press, New York.
“Heat Transfer with Boiling,” by W M. Rohsenow, in Modern Developmen t in Heat
Transfer, edited by W Ibele, Academic Press ( 1 963).
” Boiling,” by G. Leppert and C. C. Pitts, and “Two-Phase Annular-Dispersed
Flow,” by Mario Silvestri, in Advances in Heat Transfer 1, edited by T. F. Irvine,
Jr. , and 1. H. Hartnett, Academic Press ( 1 964).
“Two-Phase (Gas-Liquid) System: Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, An Annotated
Bibliography,” by R. R. Kepple and T. V. Tung, ANL-6734, U SAEC Report
( 1 963).
I sincerely thank Dr. Poul S. Larsen and Messrs. Hunter B. Currin, James N.
Kilpatrick, and Oliver A. Nelson and Miss Mary Vasilakis for their careful review
of this manuscript and suggestions for many revisions; the late Prof. Charles P.
Costello, my classmate, and Dr. Y S. Tang, my brother, for their helpful criticisms,
suggestions, and encouragement in the preparation of this manuscript. I am also
grateful to Mrs. Eldona Busch for her help in typing the manuscript.