An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Part 2 By Michael Clifford

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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Part 2 By Michael Clifford

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Contents

Introduction vii
Unit 1 – Fluid dynamics 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Basic concept in fluid dynamics 2
1.3 Boundary layers 8
1.4 Drag on immersed bodies 19
1.5 Flow through pipes and ducts 25
1.6 Dimensional analysis in fluid dynamics 34
Unit 2 – Thermodynamics 46
2.1 Introduction 46
2.2 Air conditioning 57
2.3 Gas mixtures 69
2.4 Combustion 74
2.5 Reciprocating compressors 90
2.6 Heat transfer 96
2.7 Heat exchangers 109
2.8 Vapour power cycle 119
2.9 Reciprocating internal combustion engines 131
Unit 3 – Solid mechanics 138
3.1 Introduction 138
3.2 Combined loading 139
3.3 Yield criteria 144
3.4 Deflection of beams 149
3.5 Elastic–plastic deformations 159
3.6 Elastic instability 168
3.7 Shear stresses in beams 184
3.8 Thick cylinders 195
3.9 Asymmetrical bending 207
3.10 Strain energy 217
An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering: Part 2
3.11 Fatigue 227
3.12 Fracture mechanics 231
3.13 Thermal stresses 239
Unit 4 – Electromechanical drive systems 247
4.1 Introduction 247
4.2 Characteristics of loads 248
4.3 Linear and rotary inertia 248
4.4 Geared systems 250
4.5 Tangentially driven loads 256
4.6 Steady-state characteristics of loads 259
4.7 Modifying steady-state characteristics of a load using a transmission 265
4.8 Sources of mechanical power and their characteristics 266
4.9 Direct current motors and their characteristics 268
4.10 Rectified supplies for dc motors 285
4.11 Inverter-fed induction motors and their characteristics 292
4.12 Other sources of power: pneumatics and hydraulics 305
4.13 Steady-state operating points and matching of loads to power sources 311
Unit 5 – Feedback and control theory 317
5.1 Introduction 317
5.2 Feedback and the concept of control engineering 318
5.3 Illustrations of modelling and block diagram concepts 321
5.4 The s domain: a notation borrowed from mathematics 326
5.5 Block diagrams and the s notation: the heater controller and tensioning system 331
5.6 Working with transfer functions and the s domain 334
5.7 Building a block diagram: part 1 337
5.8 Building a block diagram: part 2 344
5.9 Conversion of the block diagram to the transfer function of the system 348
5.10 Handling block diagrams with overlapping control loops 350
5.11 The control algorithm and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control 352
5.12 Response and stability of control systems 354
5.13 A framework for mapping the response of control systems: the root locus method 365
Unit 6 – Structural vibration 376
6.1 Introduction 376
6.2 Natural frequencies and mode shapes 377
6.3 Response of damped single-degree-of-freedom systems 405
6.4 Response of damped multi-degree-of-freedom systems 424
6.5 Experimental modal analysis 431
6.6 Approximate methods 437
6.7 Vibration control techniques 446
Questions 457
Index 473