Wireless Technologies Circuits Systems and Devices Krzysztof Iniewski

Pages 694
Views 384
Size 14.9 MiB
Downloads 120
Wireless Technologies Circuits Systems and Devices Krzysztof Iniewski

Contents

Preface …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
Editor ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
Contributors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
PART I Circuits for Emerging Wireless: A System Perspective
Chapter 1 RF Building Blocks for the Next-Gen Wireless Systems ………………………………….. 3
Ali M. Niknejad
Chapter 2 Insights into CMOS Wireless Receivers toward a Universal Mobile Radio ……….. 53
Massimo Brandolini, Paolo Rossi, Danilo Manstretta, and Francesco Svelto
Chapter 3 Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology …………………………………………………………… 81
Domine M. W. Leenaerts
Chapter 4 Design Considerations for Integrated MIMO Radio Transceivers ………………….. 107
Yorgos Palaskas, Ashoke Ravi, Stefano Pellerano, and Sumeet Sandhu
Chapter 5 Cognitive Radio Spectrum-Sharing Technology ………………………………………….. 131
Danijela Cabric and Robert W. Brodersen
Chapter 6 Short-Distance Wireless and Its Opportunities …………………………………………….. 159
Jan M. Rabaey, Y. H. Chee, David Chen, Luca de Nardis, Simone Gambini,
Davide Guermandi, Michael Mark, and Nathan Pletcher
Chapter 7 Ultra-Low-Power RF Transceivers …………………………………………………………….. 185
Emanuele Lopelli, Johan D. van der Tang, and Arthur H. M. van Roermund
Chapter 8 Human++: Emerging Technology for Body Area Networks ………………………….. 221
Bert Gyselinckx, Raffaella Borzi, and Philippe Mattelaer
Chapter 9 Progress toward a Single-Chip Radio …………………………………………………………. 241
Ken K. O, Paul Gorday, Jau-Jr. Lin, Changhua Cao, Yu Su, Zhenbiao Li,
Jesal Mechta, Joe E. Brewer, and Seon-Ho Hwan
PART II Chip Architectures and Circuit Implementations
Chapter 10 Digital RF Processor (DRP™) ……………………………………………………………………. 265
Robert Bogdan Staszewski
vi Contents
Chapter 11 Low Noise Amplifi ers ………………………………………………………………………………. 305
Leonid Belostotski and James Haslett
Chapter 12 Design of Silicon Integrated Circuit W-Band Low-Noise Amplifi ers ……………… 329
Sean T. Nicolson, Keith W. Tang, T. O. Dickson, P. Chevalier,
B. Sautreuil, and Sorin P. Voinigescu
Chapter 13 Power Amplifi er Principles and Modern Design Techniques …………………………. 349
Vladimir Prodanov and Mihai Banu
Chapter 14 Phase-Locked Loop–Based Integer-N RF Synthesizer ………………………………….. 383
Vikas Choudhary and Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski
Chapter 15 Frequency Synthesis for Multiband Wireless Networks ………………………………… 427
John W. M. Rogers, Foster F. Dai, and Calvin Plett
Chapter 16 Design of a Delta-Sigma Synthesizer for a Bluetooth® Transmitter ……………….. 455
Jan-Wim Eikenbroek
Chapter 17 RFIC Parametric Converters: Device Modifi cation, Circuit Design,
Control Techniques ………………………………………………………………………………….. 487
Sebastian Magierowski, Howard Chan, Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski,
and Takis Zourntos
PART III Device and Process Technology for Wireless Chips
Chapter 18 CMOS Technology for Wireless Applications ……………………………………………… 521
John J. Pekarik
Chapter 19 Distributed Effects and Coupling in RF Integrated Circuits …………………………… 543
Calvin Plett
Chapter 20 Substrate Noise Coupling from Digital to Analog Circuits
in Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits …………………………………………………………… 567
Piet Wambacq, Charlotte Soens, Geert Van der Plas,
Mustafa Badaroglu, and Stéphane Donnay
Chapter 21 Microelectromechanical Resonators for RF Applications ……………………………… 589
Frederic Nabki, Tomas A. Dusatko, and Mourad N. El-Gamal
Chapter 22 Membrane-Supported Millimeter-Wave Circuits Based on Silicon
and GaAs Micromachining ……………………………………………………………………….. 629
Alexandru Müller, Dan Neculoiu, George Konstantinidis, and Robert Plana
Index ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 655

Preface

Advanced concepts for wireless communications present a vision of technology that is embedded
in our surroundings and practically invisible, but present whenever required. From established
radio techniques like the global system for mobile communications (GSM), 802.11, or Bluetooth
to more emerging like ultra wide band (UWB) or smart dust motes, a common denominator for
future progress is underlying integrated circuit technology. Although the use of deep-submicron
CMOS processes allows for an unprecedented degree of scaling in digital circuitry, it complicates
implementation and integration of traditional radio frequency (RF) circuits. The explosive growth
of standard cellular radios and radically different new wireless applications make it imperative to
fi nd architectural and circuit solutions to these design problems.
Two key issues for future silicon-based systems are scale of integration and low power dissipation.
The concept of combining digital, memory, mixed-signal, and RF circuitry on one chip in
the form of system-on-chip (SoC) has been around for a while. However, the diffi culty of integrating
heterogeneous circuit design styles and processes onto one substrate still remains. Therefore,
the system-in-package (SiP) concept seems to be gaining acceptance as well. While it is true that
heterogeneous circuits and architectures originally developed for their native technologies cannot
be effectively integrated “as is” into a deep-submicron CMOS process, one might ask the question
whether those functions can be ported into more CMOS-friendly architectures to reap all the benefi
ts of the digital design and fl ow. It is not predestined that RF wireless frequency synthesizers be
always charge-pump-based phase-locked loops (PLLs) with voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs),
RF transmit up-converters be I/Q modulators, and receivers use only Gilbert cell or passive continuous-
time mixers. Performance of modern CMOS transistors is nowadays good enough for multi-
GHz RF applications.
Low power has always been important for wireless communications. With new developments
in wireless sensor networks and wireless systems for medical applications, power dissipation is
becoming the number one issue. Wireless sensor network systems are being applied in critical applications
in commerce, healthcare, and security. These systems have unique characteristics and face
many implementation challenges. The requirement of long operating life for a wireless sensor node
under limited energy supply imposes the most severe design constraints. This calls for innova tive
design methodologies at the circuit and system levels to address this rigorous requirement.
Wireless systems for medical applications hold a number of advantages over wired alternatives,
including ease of use, reduced risk of infection, reduced risk of failure, reduced patient discomfort,
enhanced mobility, and lower cost. Typically, applications demand expertise in multiple disciplines,
varying from analog sensors to digital processing cores, suggesting opportunities for extensive
hardware integration.
The book addresses state-of-the-art CMOS design in the context of wireless communication for
emerging applications: 3G/4G cellular telephony, wireless sensor networks, and wireless medical
applications. New exciting opportunities in body area networks, medical implants, satellite communications,
automobile radar detection, and wearable electronics are discussed. The book is a must
for anyone serious about future wireless technologies.
The book is written by top international experts on wireless circuit design representing both
the integrated circuit (IC) industry and academia. The intended audience is practicing engineers in
wireless communication fi eld with some integrated circuit background. The book can also be used
as a recommended reading and supplementary material in graduate course curriculum.
The book is divided into three different parts. Part I provides a wireless system perspective.
In Chapter 1, Ali Niknejad from Berkeley provides a broad introduction to various aspects of wireless
circuit design. In Chapter 2, researchers from the University of Pavia describe challenges in
CMOS design for multistandard radios. Emerging new UWB technology and its CMOS/BiCMOS
implementations are discussed by Domine M. W. Leenaerts from NXP/Philips in Chapter 3.
Yorgos Palaskas and Ashoke Ravi from Intel introduce novel circuit solutions for multiple-input
multiple-output (MIMO) technology in Chapter 4. Danijela Cabric and Robert W. Brodersen from
Berkeley reach even further out into the future in Chapter 5 by discussing possible architectures of
cognitive radios.
Jan M. Rabaey and his group from Berkeley present an exciting perspective of short-reach wireless
opportunities in Chapter 6. This is followed by a comprehensive review of wireless transceivers
for short-reach applications given by a group from Eindhoven University of Technology in Chapter 7.
Exciting applications of wireless technology to human body are discussed by a group from IMEC
in Chapter 8. To conclude the fi rst part of the book, a research group from the University of Florida
presents efforts toward integrating on-chip antennae on CMOS substrate in Chapter 9.
The second part of the book deals with chip architectures and circuit implementation issues.
Robert Bogdan Staszewski from Texas Instruments discusses revolutionary Digital Radio Processing
™ chip architecture in Chapter 10. Low-noise amplifi ers (LNAs) are introduced by Leonid
Belostotski and James Haslett from the University of Calgary in Chapter 11. Design of LNAs for
W-band applications is covered by a group from the University of Toronto in Chapter 12. In Chapter 13,
Vladimir Prodanov and Mihai Banu from MHI Consulting provide an extensive treatment of power
amplifi ers.
Vikas Choudhary from PMC-Sierra and Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski from CMOS cover integer
PLLs in Chapter 14. Fractional PLLs for multiband synthesis are discussed by a group from
Carleton University in Chapter 15. Jan-Wim Eikenbroek from Bruco describes interesting design
considerations for delta-sigma PLL used in Bluetooth applications in Chapter 16. Finally, to close
the second part of the book, Sebastian Magierowski and his collaborators describe RFIC parametric
converters in Chapter 17.
The third part of the book deals with devices and technologies used to fabricate wireless integrated
circuits (ICs). John J. Pekarik from IBM presents a broad overview of CMOS technology for
wireless ICs in Chapter 18. Calvin Plett from Carleton University describes distributed effects in RF
CMOS chips in Chapter 19. In Chapter 20, a group from IMEC provides deep insight into substrate
coupling effects that frequently limit chip performance. Finally, the last two chapters are devoted
to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), an emerging technology that is bound to modify
the way RF integrated circuits are built. Mourad N. El-Gamal and his collaborators from McGill
University describe integration of CMOS and MEMS technologies in Chapter 21, while Alexandru
Müller and his collaborators focus on membrane-based MEMS systems in Chapter 22.
I would like to thank all contributors for their hard work and carving out some precious time
from their busy schedules to write their valuable chapters. I would also like to thank the reviewers,
editorial staff at CRC Press, and my colleagues who have reviewed portions of the manuscript.
Despite some challenges in integrating the material, there were over 70 contributors altogether, putting
together this book was one of the most exciting projects in my life.