Standard Handbook of Chains Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling Second Edition

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Standard Handbook of Chains Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling Second Edition

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Preface

The first edition of this handbook was a landmark publication. It served the chain industry very
well for more than 20 years. It guided many engineers and technologists through their first chain
drive or conveyor selection. But the first edition was beginning to show its age. It was growing out
of date in several ways. It definitely was time for a major revision.
All of the existing chapters were rewritten so they would be easier to read and understand. The
new chapters were written with the same goal in mind. Many copies of this book will go to people
who need to absorb the information quickly and put it to use at once.
Chapter 3 was completely reorganized and extensively revised to include new information on
chain design considerations. Much research has been done and data released since 1982. Quite a
lot of it is published here for the first time.
Chapter 5 has new increased power ratings for roller chains. It also has new information on
selecting drives with a life of other than 15,000 hours. Chapter 7 has new increased power ratings
for silent chains. All of the chapters on selecting chain drives were reorganized to make the selection
steps similar.
Chapters 9 and 10 were reorganized to make the selection steps similar for all chain conveyors.
Chapter 12, on selecting flat-top chain conveyors, is all new. There was nothing on flat-top chains
in the first edition. This is a major addition.
The former chapter 12 has been divided into three separate chapters. Now, chapter 13 deals
with chain lubrication, chapter 14 deals with installation, and chapter 15 deals with chain inspection
and maintenance.
Much thought and effort was put into this second edition. A major effort was made to make it
as user friendly as possible. The goal was to make this handbook easily usable for maintenance
and distribution personnel, as well as college students and professional engineers.
Personally I am very honored that the ACA selected me to do the actual writing of the second
edition of this handbook. But I owe a huge thanks to all of the past and present members of the
ACA Technical Committee. The ACA Technical Committee, supported by the member companies
of the ACA, originally developed all of the information for this handbook. We think the effort was
worth it. We hope that you will too.

Contents

Chapter 1
A Brief History of the Development of Chain ……………………………………………………1
Early Developments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
Cog Chain …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
Cast Detachable Chain………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Cast Pintle Chain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
Precision Roller Chain ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Engineering Steel Chain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
Silent Chain……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Flat-Top Chain …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12
Terminology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Chapter 2
A Chain Overview: Uses and Advantages………………………………………………………..17
General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Types of Chain …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Scope of Chains Covered…………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
Styles and Forms of Chains……………………………………………………………………………………………….17
Straight and Offset Link Chains…………………………………………………………………………………………18
Chains with and without Rollers ………………………………………………………………………………………..19
Uses of Chain…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
Standard Chains and Their Uses ………………………………………………………………………………………..20
The Advantages of Chains in Applications ………………………………………………………………………….38
Advantages of Roller Chains in Drives……………………………………………………………………………….38
Advantages of Silent Chain Drives …………………………………………………………………………………….39
Advantages of Engineering Steel Chain for Drives ………………………………………………………………39
Advantages of Chains on Conveyors and Bucket Elevators …………………………………………………..39
Advantages of Using Chain in Elevator Materials Handling …………………………………………………40
Chapter 3
Chain Design Considerations, Construction, and Components……………………………41
Basic Chain Functions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………41
General Chain Design Considerations…………………………………………………………………………………41
Roller Chain Design Considerations …………………………………………………………………………………..50
Leaf Chain Design Considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………..60
Silent Chain Design Considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………66
Engineering Steel Chain Design Considerations ………………………………………………………………….71
Flat-Top Chain Design Considerations………………………………………………………………………………..79
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….84
Chapter 4
Sprockets………………………………………………………………………………………………………85
Types of Sprockets ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………85
Sprocket Tooth Forms……………………………………………………………………………………………………..100
Sprocket Wheel Design……………………………………………………………………………………………………106
© 2006 by American Chain Assocwiatiown w.Techbooksyard.com
Silent Chain Sprocket Teeth …………………………………………………………………………………………….109
Engineering Steel Chain Sprocket Teeth……………………………………………………………………………112
Flat-Top Chain Sprocket Teeth …………………………………………………………………………………………117
Sprocket Hubs, Keys and Keyways, Setscrews, and Shafting Selection………………………………..120
Chapter 5
Roller Chain Drives……………………………………………………………………………………..129
Typical Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
Scope …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….129
General Roller Chain Drive Selection Guidelines ………………………………………………………………129
Roller Chain Drive Selection Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………138
Sample Roller Chain Drive Selection………………………………………………………………………………..167
Equations for Horsepower Ratings……………………………………………………………………………………168
Vibration………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..171
Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….175
Chapter 6
Engineering Steel Chain Drives …………………………………………………………………….177
Typical Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………..177
Scope …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….177
General Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection Guidelines ……………………………………………..177
Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection Procedure……………………………………………………………183
Sample Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection……………………………………………………………….188
Basis of Horsepower Ratings …………………………………………………………………………………………..193
Alternate Selection Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………..198
Chapter 7
Silent Chain Drives ……………………………………………………………………………………..201
General Guidelines for Silent Chain Drive Selection ………………………………………………………….201
Silent Chain Drive Selection Procedure …………………………………………………………………………….208
Sample Silent Chain Drive Selection ………………………………………………………………………………..217
Derivation of Silent Chain Power Ratings …………………………………………………………………………218
Chapter 8
Tension Linkage Chains ……………………………………………………………………………….219
Roller Chains as Tension Linkages …………………………………………………………………………………..219
Tension Linkages Using Leaf Chain …………………………………………………………………………………220
Dimensions and Arrangements of Leaf Chain ……………………………………………………………………220
Tension Linkages Using Engineering Steel Chains …………………………………………………………….223
Characteristics of Engineering Steel Chain Tension Linkages ……………………………………………..225
Draw Bench Applications ………………………………………………………………………………………………..228
Tension Linkage Chains for Dam and Lock Gates……………………………………………………………..229
Other Applications ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….230
Catenary Tension and Chain Sag………………………………………………………………………………………231
Chapter 9
Engineering Steel Chain Conveyors ………………………………………………………………233
Types of Engineering Steel Chain Conveyors…………………………………………………………………….233
Engineering Steel Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines…………………………………………………….249
Engineering Steel Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure ……………………………………………………..256
© 2006 by American Chain Assocwiatiown w.Techbooksyard.com
Chapter 10
Roller Chain Conveyors ……………………………………………………………………………….267
Types of Roller Chain Conveyors……………………………………………………………………………………..267
Roller Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines……………………………………………………………………..267
Multiple-Strand Conveyers ………………………………………………………………………………………………275
Roller Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure………………………………………………………………………279
Precision Indexing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..277
Environment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..279
Sample Roller Chain Conveyor Selection ………………………………………………………………………….288
Chapter 11
Chains for Bucket Elevators………………………………………………………………………….293
Elevators Using Engineering Steel Chains…………………………………………………………………………293
Take-Ups ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….303
Design and Selection of Chain and Bucket Elevators …………………………………………………………304
Selection Steps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….307
Elevator Chain Selection Example ……………………………………………………………………………………312
Roller Chain Equipped Bucket Elevators…………………………………………………………………………..314
Pivoted Bucket or Pan Conveyors …………………………………………………………………………………….314
Operation Practices …………………………………………………………………………………………………………315
Chapter 12
Flat-Top Chain Conveyors…………………………………………………………………………….319
Flat-Top Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines ………………………………………………………………….319
Flat-Top Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure …………………………………………………………………..329
Sample Flat-Top Chain Conveyor Selection ………………………………………………………………………339
Selection Software ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….341
Chapter 13
Chain Lubrication………………………………………………………………………………………..343
Purpose of Lubrication…………………………………………………………………………………………………….343
Lubricant Characteristics …………………………………………………………………………………………………343
Lubrication of Drive Chains …………………………………………………………………………………………….345
Lubrication Types for Chain Drives ………………………………………………………………………………….345
Chain Casings ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..347
Temperature Increase in a Chain Casing……………………………………………………………………………350
Lubrication of Exposed Drive Chains ……………………………………………………………………………….351
Lubrication of Conveyor, Bucket Elevator, and Tension Linkage Chains………………………………351
High-Temperature Lubrication………………………………………………………………………………………….355
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..358
Chapter 14
Chain Installation…………………………………………………………………………………………359
Safety Precautions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..359
Chain Guarding ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………359
Installation Steps …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….359
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..374
Chapter 15
Chain Inspection and Maintenance………………………………………………………………..375
Safety Precautions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..375
Inspection Program …………………………………………………………………………………………………………375
© 2006 by American Chain Assocwiatiown w.Techbooksyard.com
Inspection and Maintenance of Chain Drives …………………………………………………………………….376
Inspection and Maintenance of Chain Conveyors and Bucket Elevators ……………………………….383
Inspection and Maintenance of Tension Linkage Chains …………………………………………………….385
Replacing and Repairing Chains ………………………………………………………………………………………386
Protecting Idle Chains and Sprockets………………………………………………………………………………..386
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..386
© 2006 by American Chain