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Semiconductor Devices Theory and Application by James M. Fiore

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Semiconductor Devices Theory and Application by James M. Fiore
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Table of Contents

Chaptterr 1:: Semiiconducttorr Fundamenttallss 14
1.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 14
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 14
First, a Little History
Variable Naming Convention
1.2 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . 16
1.3 Crystals . . . . . . . . 20
1.4 Doped Materials . . . . . . . 23
N-Type Material
P-Type Material
Summary . . . . . . . . 27
Review Questions . . . . . . . 27
Chaptterr 2:: PN JJuncttiionss and Diiodess 29
2.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 29
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 29
2.2 The PN Junction . . . . . . . 30
Forward-Bias
Reverse-Bias
Shockley Equation
2.3 Diode Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . . 35
2.4 Diode Circuit Models . . . . . . 39
2.5 Other Types of Diodes . . . . . . 47
Zener Diode
Light Emitting Diode and Photodiode
Schottky and Varactor Diodes
Summary . . . . . . . . 55
Review Questions . . . . . . . 55
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 55
Chaptterr 3:: Diiode Applliicattiionss 63
3.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 63
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 63
3.2 Rectification . . . . . . . 63
Half-wave Rectification
A Note Regarding Transformers
Smoothing (Filtering) the Output
Full-wave Rectification
Full-wave Bridge With Dual Outputs
Zener Regulation
7
3.3 Clippers . . . . . . . . 80
3.4 Clampers . . . . . . . . 83
Summary . . . . . . . . 86
Review Questions . . . . . . . 86
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 87
Chapter 4: Bipolar Junction Trranssiissttorrss ((BJJTss)) 90
4.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 90
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 90
4.2 The Bipolar Junction Transistor . . . . . 90
A Simple Two-Diode Model
Biasing the BJT
The PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor
4.3 BJT Collector Curves. . . . . . . 95
Rise in β and Early Voltage
4.4 BJT Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . . 98
4.5 Ebers-Moll Model . . . . . . . 101
β Variation Issues
4.6 DC Load Lines . . . . . . . 104
4.7 BJT Switching and Driver Applications . . . . 106
The Saturating Switch
The Non-Saturating Driver
The Zener Follower
Summary . . . . . . . . 111
Review Questions . . . . . . . 112
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 112
Chaptterr 5:: BJJT Biiassiing 116
5.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 116
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 116
5.2 The Need For Biasing . . . . . . 116
5.3 Two-Supply Emitter Bias . . . . . . 117
Verification of Stability
PNP Two-Supply Emitter Bias
5.4 Voltage Divider Bias. . . . . . . 123
Verification of Stability
PNP Voltage Divider Bias
5.5 Feedback Biasing . . . . . . . 130
Collector Feedback Bias
Emitter Feedback Bias
Combination Feedback Bias
8
Summary . . . . . . . . 135
Review Questions . . . . . . . 135
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 136
Chapter 6:: Amplliiffiierr Concepttss 141
6.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 141
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 141
6.2 Amplifier Model . . . . . . . 141
Loading Effects
6.3 Compliance and Distortion . . . . . . 144
6.4 Frequency Response and Noise . . . . . 149
6.5 Miller’s Theorem. . . . . . . . 151
Summary . . . . . . . . 154
Review Questions . . . . . . . 155
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 155
Chaptterr 7:: BJJT Smallll Siignall Amplliiffiierrss 158
7.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 158
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 158
7.2 Simplified AC Model of the BJT . . . . . 159
7.3 Common Emitter Amplifier . . . . . . 162
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
Power Supply Bypass and Decoupling
7.4 Common Collector Amplifier . . . . . 175
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
A High Impedance Source: The Guitar Pickup
The Darlington Pair
The Phase Splitter
7.5 Common Base Amplifier . . . . . . 186
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
7.6 Multi-Stage Amplifiers . . . . . . 188
Direct Coupling
Summary . . . . . . . . 191
Review Questions . . . . . . . 191
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 192
9
Chapter 8: BJT Class A Powerr Amplliiffiierrss 199
8.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 199
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 199
8.2 Amplifier Classes . . . . . . . 199
8.3 Class A Operation and Load Lines . . . . . 200
8.4 Loudspeakers . . . . . . . 211
Loudspeaker Impedance
8.5 Power Transistor Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . 216
Power Derating
8.6 Heat Sinks . . . . . . . . 220
Thermal Resistance
Summary . . . . . . . . 226
Review Questions . . . . . . . 226
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 226
Chaptterr 9:: BJJT Cllassss B Powerr Amplliiffiierrss 231
9.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . 231
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 231
9.2 The Class B Configuration . . . . . . 232
Class AB Operation
The Current Mirror
Class B Circuit Maximums
Class B Power Dissipation
Class B Efficiency
9.3 Extensions and Refinements . . . . . 251
Current Limiting
High Current Gain Configurations
Current Sharing
VBE Multiplier and Miller Capacitor
Bridging
Power Supply Bypassing
Summary . . . . . . . . 259
Review Questions . . . . . . . 260
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 260
Chaptterr 10:: JJuncttiion Fiielld Effffectt Trranssiissttorrss ((JJFETss)) 266
10.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 266
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 266
10.2 JFET Internals . . . . . . . 267
10.3 JFET Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . . 272
10.4 JFET Biasing . . . . . . . 275
DC Model
Constant Voltage Bias
Self Bias
Combination Bias
10
Constant Current Bias
Summary . . . . . . . . 291
Review Questions . . . . . . . 292
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 292
Chapter 11: JFET Small Siignall Ampllffiierrss 296
11.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 296
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 296
11.2 Simplified AC Model of the JFET . . . . . 296
11.3 Common Source Amplifier. . . . . . 297
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
11.4 Common Drain Amplifier . . . . . . 306
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
11.5 Multi-stage and Combination Circuits . . . . 309
11.6 Ohmic Region Operation . . . . . . 311
Summary . . . . . . . . 316
Review Questions . . . . . . . 317
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 317
Chaptterr 12:: Mettall Oxiide Semiiconducttorr FETss ((MOSFETss)) 321
12.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 321
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 321
12.2 The DE-MOSFET . . . . . . . 322
12.3 DE-MOSFET Biasing . . . . . . 325
Zero Bias
Voltage Divider Bias
12.4 The E-MOSFET . . . . . . . 328
12.5 E-MOSFET Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . 331
12.6 E-MOSFET Biasing . . . . . . . 334
Voltage Divider Bias
Drain Feedback Bias
Summary . . . . . . . . 337
Review Questions . . . . . . . 338
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 338
11
Chapter 13: MOSFET Small Siignall Amplliiffiierrss 344
13.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 344
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 344
13.2 MOSFET Common Source Amplifiers . . . . 344
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
13.3 MOSFET Common Drain Followers . . . . 352
Voltage Gain
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
Summary . . . . . . . . 356
Review Questions . . . . . . . 357
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 357
Chaptterr 14:: Cllassss D Powerr Amplliiffiierrss 362
14.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 362
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 362
14.2 Class D Basics . . . . . . . 363
14.3 Pulse Width Modulation . . . . . . 365
Reconstituting the Output
14.4 Output Configurations . . . . . . 368
Practical Concerns
Summary . . . . . . . . 376
Review Questions . . . . . . . 377
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 377
Chaptterr 15:: IInssullatted Gatte Biipollarr Trranssiissttorrss ((IIGBTss)) 378
15.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . 378
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 378
15.2 IGBT Internals . . . . . . . 379
15.3 IGBT Data Sheet Interpretation . . . . . 381
15.4 IGBT Applications . . . . . . . 389
Induction Heating
DC-to-AC Inversion
Motor Control
DC-to-DC Conversion
Summary . . . . . . . . 395
Review Questions . . . . . . . 396
Problem Set . . . . . . . . 396
12
Appendiicess 398
A: Manufacturer’s Data Sheet Links . . . . . 398
B: Standard Component Sizes . . . . . . 399
C: Answers to Selected Numbered Problems . . . . 400
D: Answers to Questions Not Asked . . . . . 405
13