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Propulsion Systems for Hybrid Vehicles 2nd Edition John M. Miller

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Propulsion Systems for Hybrid Vehicles 2nd Edition John M. Miller

Contents

Preface xiii
1 Hybrid vehicles 1
1.1 Electric engine hybrids 2010 11
1.2 Limits of engine-only actions 12
1.3 Vehicle electrification and more electric vehicle 15
1.4 Performance characteristics of road vehicles 18
1.4.1 Partnership for new generation of vehicle goals 18
1.4.2 Engine downsizing 19
1.4.3 Drive cycle characteristics 22
1.4.4 Hybrid vehicle performance targets 26
1.4.5 Basic vehicle dynamics 27
1.5 Calculation of road load 32
1.5.1 Components of road load 32
1.5.2 Friction and wheel slip 38
1.6 Predicting fuel economy 41
1.6.1 Emissions 42
1.6.2 Brake specific fuel consumption 42
1.6.3 Fuel economy and consumption conversions 43
1.7 Internal combustion engines: A primer 45
1.7.1 What is brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)? 47
1.7.2 BSFC sensitivity to BMEP 49
1.7.3 ICE basics: Fuel consumption mapping 51
1.7.4 Emissions regulations 52
1.8 Grid connected hybrids 56
1.8.1 The connected car, V2G 56
1.8.2 Grid connected HEV20 and HEV60 59
1.8.3 Charge sustaining and charge depleting 62
1.9 Exercises 64
References 65
2 Hybrid architectures 67
2.1 Series configurations 71
2.1.1 Locomotive drives 71
2.1.2 Series–parallel switching 74
2.1.3 Load tracking architecture 76
2.2 Pre-transmission parallel configurations 77
2.2.1 Energy recuperator systems 79
2.2.2 Micro hybrid 80
2.2.3 Mild hybrid 81
2.2.4 Power assist 84
2.2.5 Dual mode 85
2.3 Pre-transmission combined configurations 86
2.3.1 Power split 88
2.3.2 Power split with shift 93
2.3.3 Continuously variable transmission derived 96
2.3.4 Integrated hybrid assist transmission 97
2.4 Post-transmission parallel configurations 100
2.4.1 Post-transmission hybrid 101
2.4.2 Wheel motor hybrid 102
2.5 Hydraulic post-transmission hybrid 104
2.5.1 Launch assist 104
2.5.2 Hydraulic–electric post-transmission 105
2.5.3 Very high voltage electric drives 106
2.6 Flywheel systems 107
2.6.1 Texas A&M University transmotor 107
2.6.2 Petrol electric drivetrain 108
2.6.3 Swiss Federal Institute flywheel concept 109
2.7 Ultra-capacitor-only vehicles 110
2.7.1 Catenary powered vehicles with ultra-capacitors 110
2.7.2 Catenary powered vehicles with wayside ultra-capacitors 111
2.7.3 Ultra-capacitor trolley bus vehicles 113
2.8 Electric four wheel drive 113
2.8.1 The E4 system 114
2.8.2 Production ‘Estima Van’ example 115
2.9 Exercises 115
References 117
3 Hybrid power plant specifications 119
3.1 Grade and cruise targets 124
3.1.1 Gradeability 127
3.1.2 Wide open throttle 127
3.2 Launch and boosting 128
3.2.1 First two seconds 128
3.2.2 Lane change 128
3.3 Braking and energy recuperation 129
3.3.1 Series RBS 129
3.3.2 Parallel RBS 133
3.3.3 RBS interaction with ABS 133
3.3.4 RBS interaction with IVD/VSC/ESP 134
3.4 Drive cycle implications 135
3.4.1 Types of drive cycles 135
3.4.2 Electric vehicle and regenerative electric vehicle cycles
for PHEVs 136
3.4.3 Average speed and impact on fuel economy 138
3.4.4 Dynamics of acceleration/deceleration 139
3.4.5 Wide open throttle launch 139
3.5 Electric fraction 140
3.5.1 Engine downsizing 140
3.5.2 Range and performance 140
viii Propulsion systems for hybrid vehicles
3.6 Usage requirements 141
3.6.1 Customer usage 141
3.6.2 Electrical burden 141
3.6.3 Grade holding and creep 142
3.6.4 Neutral idle 142
3.7 Exercises 143
References 143
4 Sizing the drive system 145
4.1 Matching the electric drive and ice 147
4.1.1 Transmission selection 149
4.1.2 Gear step selection 149
4.1.3 Automatic transmission architectures 151
4.1.3.1 Simpson type 152
4.1.3.2 Wilson type 154
4.1.3.3 Lepelletier type 154
4.1.3.4 Summary of transmission types 155
4.2 Sizing the propulsion motor 155
4.2.1 Step 1 158
4.2.2 Step 2 159
4.2.3 Step 3 162
4.2.4 Torque and power 164
4.2.5 Constant power speed ratio (CPSR) 168
4.2.6 Machine sizing 170
4.3 Sizing the power electronics 173
4.3.1 Switch technology selection 175
4.3.2 kVA/kW and power factor 176
4.3.3 Ripple capacitor design 180
4.3.4 Switching frequency and PWM 183
4.4 Selecting the energy storage technology 184
4.4.1 Lead–acid technology 194
4.4.2 Nickel-metal hydride 196
4.4.3 Lithium ion 196
4.4.4 Metal–air batteries 198
4.4.5 Fuel cell 199
4.4.6 Ultra-capacitor 204
4.4.7 Flywheels 208
4.5 Electrical overlay harness 208
4.5.1 Cable requirements 209
4.5.2 Inverter bus bars 212
4.5.3 High voltage disconnect 215
4.5.4 Power distribution centres 215
4.6 Communications 216
4.6.1 Communication protocol: CAN 219
4.6.2 Power and data networks 220
4.6.3 Future communications: TTCAN 222
4.6.4 Future communications: FlexRay 223
4.6.5 Competing future communications protocols 226
4.6.6 Diagnostic test codes (DTC) 227
4.7 Supporting subsystems 228
4.7.1 Steering systems 228
4.7.2 Braking systems 229
Contents ix
4.7.3 Cabin climate control 230
4.7.4 Thermal management 230
4.7.5 Human–machine interface 233
4.8 Cost and weight budgeting 234
4.8.1 Cost analysis 234
4.8.2 Weight tally 236
4.9 Exercises 237
References 238
5 Electric drive system technologies 243
5.1 Permanent magnets 243
5.1.1 Permanent magnets: A primer 244
5.1.2 What happened to Alnico? 247
5.1.3 Rare earth permanent magnets 248
5.2 Brushless machines 252
5.2.1 Brushless dc 256
5.2.2 Brushless ac 261
5.2.3 Design essentials of the SPM 265
5.2.4 Dual mode inverter 274
5.3 Interior permanent magnet 277
5.3.1 Buried magnet 278
5.3.2 Flux squeeze 282
5.3.3 Mechanical field weakening 287
5.3.4 Multilayer designs 289
5.4 Asynchronous machines 290
5.4.1 Classical induction 290
5.4.2 Winding reconfiguration 293
5.4.3 Pole changing 294
5.4.3.1 Hunt winding 295
5.4.3.2 Electronic pole change 296
5.4.3.3 Pole–phase modulation 298
5.4.3.4 Pole changing PM 304
5.5 Variable reluctance machine 306
5.5.1 Switched reluctance 307
5.5.2 Synchronous reluctance 311
5.5.3 Radial laminated structures 313
5.6 Relative merits of electric machine technologies 313
5.6.1 Dynamic performance comparisons 313
5.6.2 Comparisons for electric vehicles 315
5.6.3 Comparisons for hybrid vehicles 316
5.7 Exercises 319
References 320
6 Power electronics for ac drives 325
6.1 Semiconductor device technologies 326
6.1.1 Trends in power semiconductors 327
6.1.2 Wide bandgap devices 328
6.2 Essentials of pulse width modulation 330
6.3 Resonant pulse modulation 335
6.4 Space vector PWM 337
x Propulsion systems for hybrid vehicles
6.5 Multilevel inverters 346
6.6 Comparison of PWM techniques 348
6.7 dc/dc converters 349
6.8 Thermal design 351
6.9 Reliability considerations 356
6.10 Sensors for current regulators 359
6.11 Interleaved PWM for minimum ripple 361
6.12 Exercises 363
References 365
7 Drive system control 367
7.1 Essentials of field oriented control 368
7.2 Dynamics of field oriented control 373
7.3 Sensorless control 379
7.4 Efficiency optimization 384
7.5 Direct torque control 388
7.6 Exercises 391
References 391
8 Drive system efficiency 395
8.1 Traction motor 395
8.1.1 Core losses 398
8.1.2 Copper losses and skin effects 403
8.2 Inverter 406
8.2.1 Conduction 406
8.2.2 Switching 408
8.2.3 Reverse recovery 409
8.3 Distribution system 410
8.4 Energy storage system 412
8.5 Efficiency mapping 412
8.6 Exercises 416
References 417
9 Hybrid vehicle characterization 419
9.1 City cycle 427
9.2 Highway cycle 428
9.3 Combined cycle 429
9.4 European NEDC 430
9.5 Japan 10–15 mode 432
9.6 Regulated cycle for hybrids 433
9.7 Exercises 435
References 438
10 Energy storage technologies 439
10.1 Battery systems 441
10.1.1 Lead–acid 447
Contents xi
10.1.2 Nickel-metal hydride 449
10.1.3 Lithium ion 454
10.2 Capacitor systems 461
10.2.1 Symmetrical ultra-capacitors 466
10.2.2 Asymmetrical ultra-capacitors 470
10.2.3 Ultra-capacitors combined with batteries 473
10.2.4 Hybridized battery example 481
10.2.5 Ultra-capacitor cell balancing 482
10.2.5.1 Dissipative cell equalization 484
10.2.5.2 Non-dissipative cell equalization 485
10.2.5.3 Electrochemical double layer capacitor
specification and test 488
10.3 Hydrogen storage 493
10.3.1 Metal hydride 495
10.3.2 High pressure gas 496
10.4 Flywheel systems 496
10.5 Pneumatic systems 499
10.6 Storage system modelling 499
10.6.1 Battery model 499
10.6.2 Fuel cell model 504
10.6.3 Ultra-capacitor model 507
10.7 Exercises 516
References 519
11 Hybrid vehicle test and validation 523
11.1 Vehicle coast down procedure 525
11.2 Sports utility vehicle test 527
11.3 Sports utility vehicle plus trailer test 529
11.4 Class-8 tractor test 532
11.5 Class-8 tractor plus trailer test 535
11.6 Exercises 539
References 541
12 Automated electrified transportation 543
12.1 Personal rapid transit 546
12.2 Automated highway system 547
12.3 Non-contacting power transfer 549
12.3.1 Inductive coupling technology 550
12.3.2 Radiated near-field power transfer 552
12.4 Transporting cargo 553
12.5 Exercises 561
References 561
Appendix A 563
Index 567

Preface

This second edition of Propulsion Systems for Hybrid Vehicles represents a major
revision to the earlier book first published in 2004. A lot has changed over the past
seven years and a good deal of that progress has been captured in this work. There is
also significant structure change to the chapters with the inclusion of worked
examples in all the chapters to further clarify and expand on the material presented.
Exercise problems are provided at the end of each chapter that are intended to
solidify the materials covered. Answers are provided to these exercises so that the
approach taken can be validated.
In this book attention is focused on hybrid technologies that are combined with
gasoline internal combustion engines, or spark ignited, SI, engines as they are
known. When an SI engine is direct injected it is more appropriate to refer to it as
spark ignited direct injected, SIDI. The SIDI is being replaced by a new acronym,
GDI-gasoline direct injection. Hybrid compression ignition direct injection,
CIDI, engines operating on diesel fuel have been demonstrated, but the efficiency
gained by adding electric fraction will be modest since the diesel is already a very
efficient energy converter. When SIDI and CIDI engines are downsized and
hybridized the effect is that of electric supercharging as Toyota Motor Co. once
referred to this electrification process. Electrification brings with it energy conversion
in the form of electric machines and power conversion in the form of power
electronic converters. Both of these topics were covered in the 1st edition and have
been updated in this 2nd edition. Electric drive system control, energy management
and electric energy storage comprise the remainder of the electrification chapters in
this book. The topic is then completed by treatment of standard drive cycles,
emissions considerations and efficiency. Finally, the book concludes with an all
new chapter on AET – automated electrified transportation, what many view as the
future of hybrid vehicle evolution.
As a text to supplement an existing automotive course at college senior level or
graduate level it is recommended that chapters 1 through 4, along with portions of
chapters 8, 9 and 11 be used. For more in depth treatment of hybrid and plug-in
vehicles, battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles the materials in chapters 5,
6, 7, 8 and 9 are most relevant along with chapter 12 for a vision of the role of these
systems in future transportation systems. Chapter 12 on automated electrified
transportation has been included in the 2nd edition to introduce this topic that is now
receiving more interest, especially for the transporation of freight.
The material in this book is recommended primarily for practicing engineers in
industrial, commercial, academic, and government settings. As already said, it can
be used to complement existing texts for a graduate or senior-level undergraduate
course on automotive electronics and transportation systems. Depending on the
background of the practicing engineers or university students, the material contained
in this book may be selected to suit specific applications or interests. In more
formal settings, and in particular where different disciplines such as electrical and
mechanical engineering students are combined, course instructors are encouraged
to focus on material presented in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. Instructors also have the
flexibility to choose the material in any order for their lectures. Most of the material
in this book has been developed by the author during active projects and presentations
at conferences, symposia, workshops, and invited lectures to various
companies and universities.
I wish to acknowledge my wife JoAnn for her encouragement and assistance in
the preparation of this second edition. Also, to my many good friends in the automobile
and supplier industry to whom I owe so much for the opportunity to educate
myself on hybrid propulsion technology. My special thanks to Ms. Lisa Reading,
and the staff at the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Stevenage, UK, and
S. Ramya at MPS Ltd, a Macmillan Company for all their help on making the publication
of this book possible.