NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT OPERATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Edited by Pavel V. Tsvetkov

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NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT OPERATION AND SUSTAINABILITY Edited by Pavel V. Tsvetkov

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Contents

Preface IX
Part 1 Nuclear Power Deployment 1
Chapter 1 Nuclear Naval Propulsion 3
Magdi Ragheb
Chapter 2 Assessment of Deployment
Scenarios of New Fuel Cycle Technologies 33
J. J. Jacobson, G. E. Matthern and S. J. Piet
Chapter 3 The Investment Evaluation of Third-Generation
Nuclear Power – From the Perspective of Real Options 69
Ying Fan and Lei Zhu
Chapter 4 Characteristic Evaluation and
Scenario Study on Fast Reactor Cycle in Japan 91
Hiroki Shiotani, Kiyoshi Ono and Takashi Namba
Chapter 5 Nuclear Proliferation 113
Michael Zentner
Chapter 6 Ethics of Nuclear Power: How to
Understand Sustainability in the Nuclear Debate 129
Behnam Taebi
Part 2 Operation and Decomissioning 151
Chapter 7 Long-Term Operation of VVER Power Plants 153
Tamás János Katona
Chapter 8 A Novel Approach to Spent Fuel Pool Decommissioning 197
R. L. Demmer
Chapter 9 Post-Operational Treatment of
Residual Na Coolant in EBR-II Using Carbonation 211
Steven R. Sherman and Collin J. Knight
Part 3 Environment and Nuclear Energy 241
Chapter 10 Carbon Leakage of Nuclear
Energy – The Example of Germany 243
Sarah von Kaminietz and Martin Kalinowski
Chapter 11 Effects of the Operating Nuclear
Power Plant on Marine Ecology and
Environment – A Case Study of Daya Bay in China 255
You-Shao Wang
Chapter 12 Microbial Leaching of Uranium Ore 291
Hadi Hamidian
Part 4 Advances in Nuclear Waste Management 305
Chapter 13 Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Geological
Disposals: The Mining and the Borehole Approach 307
Moeller Dietmar and Bielecki Rolf
Chapter 14 Isotopic Uranium and Plutonium Denaturing
as an Effective Method for Nuclear Fuel
Proliferation Protection in Open and Closed Fuel Cycles 331
Kryuchkov E.F., Tsvetkov P.V., Shmelev A.N., Apse V.A.,
Kulikov G.G., Masterov S.V., Kulikov E.G. and Glebov V.B
Part 5 Thorium 363
Chapter 15 Implementation Strategy of Thorium
Nuclear Power in the Context of Global Warming 365
Takashi Kamei
Chapter 16 Thorium Fission and Fission-Fusion Fuel Cycle 383
Magdi Ragheb
Chapter 17 New Sustainable Secure Nuclear Industry Based on Thorium
Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics (THORIMS-NES) 407
Kazuo Furukawa, Eduardo D. Greaves,
L. Berrin Erbay, Miloslav Hron and Yoshio Kato
Part 6 Advances in Energy Conversion 445
Chapter 18 Water Splitting Technologies
for Hydrogen Cogeneration from Nuclear Energy 447
Zhaolin Wang and Greg F. Naterer
Chapter 19 Reformer and Membrane Modules (RMM)
for Methane Conversion Powered by a Nuclear Reactor 467

Preface

We are fortunate to live in incredibly exciting and incredibly challenging time. The
world is rapidly growing; country economies developing at accelerated growth rates,
technology advances improve quality of life and become available to larger and larger
populations. At the same time we are coming to a realization that we are responsible
for our planet. We have to make sure that our continuous quest for prosperity does not
backfire via catastrophic irreversible climate changes, and depleted or limited
resources that may challenge the very existence of future generations. We are at the
point in our history when we have to make sure that our growth is sustainable. Energy
demands due to economic growth and increasing population must be satisfied in a
sustainable manner assuring inherent safety, efficiency and no or minimized
environmental impact. New energy sources and systems must be inherently safe and
environmentally benign.
These considerations are among the reasons that lead to serious interest in deploying
nuclear power as a sustainable energy source. Today’s nuclear reactors are safe and
highly efficient energy systems that offer electricity and a multitude of co-generation
energy products ranging from potable water to heat for industrial applications. At the
same time, catastrophic earthquake and tsunami events in Japan resulted in the
nuclear accident that forced us to rethink our approach to nuclear safety, design
requirements and facilitated growing interests in advanced nuclear energy systems,
next generation nuclear reactors, which are inherently capable to withstand natural
disasters and avoid catastrophic consequences without any environmental impact.
This book is one in a series of books on nuclear power published by InTech. It consists
of six major sections housing twenty chapters on topics from the key subject areas
pertinent to successful development, deployment and operation of nuclear power
systems worldwide:
Nuclear Power Deployment
1. Nuclear Naval Propulsion
2. Deployment Scenarios for New Technologies
3. The Investment Evaluation of Third-Generation Nuclear Power – from the
Perspective of Real Options
4. Characteristic Evaluation and Scenario Study on Fast Reactor Cycle in Japan
X Preface
5. Nuclear Proliferation
6. Ethics of Nuclear Power: How to Understand Sustainability in the Nuclear
Debate
Operation and Decommissioning
7. Long-Term Operation of VVER Nuclear Power Plants
8. Novel, In-situ Spent Fuel Pool Decommissioning
9. Post-Operational Treatment of Residual Na Coolant in EBR-II Using
Carbonation
Environment and Nuclear Energy
10. Carbon Leakage of Nuclear Energy – The Example of Germany
11. Effects of the Operating Nuclear Power Plant on Marine Ecology &
Environment- a Case Study of Daya Bay in China
12. Microbial Leaching of Uranium Ore
Advances in Nuclear Waste Management
13. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Geological Disposals: The Mining
and the Borehole Approach
14. Isotopic Uranium and Plutonium Denaturing as an Effective Method for
Nuclear Fuel Proliferation Protection in Open and Closed Fuel Cycles
Thorium
15. Implementation Strategy of Thorium Nuclear Power in the Context of Global
Warming
16. Thorium Fission and Fission-Fusion Fuel Cycle
17. New Sustainable Secure Nuclear Industry Based on Thorium Molten-Salt
Nuclear Energy Synergetics (THORIMS-NES)
Advances in Energy Conversion
18. Water Splitting Technologies for Hydrogen Cogeneration from Nuclear Energy
19. Reformer and Membrane Modules (RMM) for Methane Conversion Powered
by a Nuclear Reactor
20. Hydrogen Output from Catalyzed Radiolysis of Water.
Our book opens with the section on general aspects of nuclear power deployment.
Later sections address selected issues in operation and decommissioning, economics
and environmental effects. The book shows both advantages and challenges
emphasizing the need for further development and innovation. Advances in nuclear
waste management and thorium-based fuel cycles lead to environmentally benign
nuclear energy scenarios and ultimately, towards nuclear energy sustainability.
Improvements in applications and efficiency of energy conversion facilitate economics
competitiveness of nuclear power.
With all diversity of topics in 20 chapters, the nuclear power deployment, operation
and sustainability is the common thread that is easily identifiable in all chapters of our
book. The “system-thinking” approach allows synthesizing the entire body of
provided information into a consistent integrated picture of the real-life complex
engineering system – nuclear power system – where everything is working together.
Preface XI
The goal of the book is to bring nuclear power to our readers as one of the promising
energy sources that has a unique potential to meet energy demands with minimized
environmental impact, near-zero carbon footprint, and competitive economics via
robust potential applications. Continuous technological advances will lead towards
sustainable nuclear energy via closed fuel cycles and advanced energy systems.
The book targets everyone as its potential readership groups – students, researchers
and practitioners – who are interested to learn about nuclear power. The idea is to
facilitate intellectual cross-fertilization between field experts and non-field experts
taking advantage of methods and tools developed by both groups. The book will
hopefully inspire future research and development efforts, innovation by stimulating
ideas.
We hope our readers will enjoy the book and will find it both interesting and useful.