Mechanical Vibrations Theory and Applications Si By S. Graham Kelly

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Mechanical Vibrations Theory and Applications Si By S. Graham Kelly
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Preface to the SI Edition

This edition of Mechanical Vibrations: Theory and Applications has been adapted to
incorporate the International System of Units (Le Système International d’Unités or SI)
throughout the book.
Le Systeme International d’ Unites
The United States Customary System (USCS) of units uses FPS (foot-pound-second) units
(also called English or Imperial units). SI units are primarily the units of the MKS (meterkilogram-
second) system. However, CGS (centimeter-gram-second) units are often accepted
as SI units, especially in textbooks.
Using SI Units in this Book
In this book, we have used both MKS and CGS units. USCS units or FPS units used in
the US Edition of the book have been converted to SI units throughout the text and problems.
However, in case of data sourced from handbooks, government standards, and product
manuals, it is not only extremely difficult to convert all values to SI, it also encroaches
upon the intellectual property of the source. Also, some quantities such as the ASTM grain
size number and Jominy distances are generally computed in FPS units and would lose
their relevance if converted to SI. Some data in figures, tables, examples, and references,
therefore, remains in FPS units. For readers unfamiliar with the relationship between the
FPS and the SI systems, conversion tables have been provided inside the front and back
covers of the book.
To solve problems that require the use of sourced data, the sourced values can be converted
from FPS units to SI units just before they are to be used in a calculation. To obtain
standardized quantities and manufacturers’ data in SI units, the readers may contact the
appropriate government agencies or authorities in their countries/regions.
Instructor Resources
A Printed Instructor’s Solution Manual in SI units is available on request. An electronic
version of the Instructor’s Solutions Manual, and PowerPoint slides of the figures from the
SI text are available through http://login.cengage.com.
The readers’ feedback on this SI Edition will be highly appreciated and will help us improve
subsequent editions.

Preface

Engineers apply mathematics and science to solve problems. In a traditional undergraduate
engineering curriculum, students begin their academic career by taking
courses in mathematics and basic sciences such as chemistry and physics. Students
begin to develop basic problem-solving skills in engineering courses such as statics, dynamics,
mechanics of solids, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. In such courses, students
learn to apply basic laws of nature, constitutive equations, and equations of state to develop
solutions to abstract engineering problems.
Vibrations is one of the first courses where students learn to apply the knowledge obtained
from mathematics and basic engineering science courses to solve practical problems. While the
knowledge about vibrations and vibrating systems is important, the problem-solving skills
obtained while studying vibrations are just as important. The objectives of this book are twofold:
to present the basic principles of engineering vibrations and to present them in a framework
where the reader will advance his/her knowledge and skill in engineering problem solving.
This book is intended for use as a text in a junior- or senior-level course in vibrations. It
could be used in a course populated by both undergraduate and graduate students. The latter
chapters are appropriate for use as a stand-alone graduate course in vibrations. The prerequisites
for such a course should include courses in statics, dynamics, mechanics of materials, and
mathematics using differential equations. Some material covered in a course in fluid mechanics
is included, but this material can be omitted without a loss in continuity.
Chapter 1 is introductory, reviewing concepts such as dynamics, so that all readers are
familiar with the terminology and procedures. Chapter 2 focuses on the elements that comprise
mechanical systems and the methods of mathematical modeling of mechanical systems.
It presents two methods of the derivation of differential equations: the free-body diagram
method and the energy method, which are used throughout the book. Chapters 3 through 5
focus on single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems. Chapter 6 is focused solely on two
degree-of-freedom systems. Chapters 7 through 9 focus on general multiple degree-of-freedom
systems. Chapter 10 provides a brief overview of continuous systems. The topic of Chapter 11
is the finite-element methods, which is a numerical method with its origin in energy methods,
allowing continuous systems to be modeled as discrete systems. Chapter 12 introduces
the reader to nonlinear vibrations, while Chapter 13 provides a brief introduction to random
vibrations.
The references at the end of this text list many excellent vibrations books that address
the topics of vibration and design for vibration suppression. There is a need for this book,
as it has several unique features:
• Two benchmark problems are studied throughout the book. Statements defining the
generic problems are presented in Chapter 1. Assumptions are made to render SDOF
models of the systems in Chapter 2 and the free and forced vibrations of the systems
studied in Chapters 3 through 5, including vibration isolation. Two degree-of-freedom
system models are considered in Chapter 6, while MDOF models are studied in
Chapters 7 through 9. A continuous-systems model for one benchmark problem is
considered in Chapter 10 and solved using the finite-element method in Chapter 11.
A random-vibration model of the other benchmark problem is considered in Chapter 13.
The models get more sophisticated as the book progresses.
• Most vibration problems (certainly ones encountered by undergraduates) involve the
planar motion of rigid bodies. Thus, a free-body diagram method based upon
D’Alembert’s principle is developed and used for rigid bodies or systems of rigid bodies
undergoing planar motion.
• An energy method called the equivalent systems method is developed for SDOF systems
without introducing Lagrange’s equations. Lagrange’s equations are reserved for
MDOF systems.
• Most chapters have a Further Examples section which presents problems using concepts
presented in several sections or even several chapters of the book.
• MATLAB® is used in examples throughout the book as a computational and graphical
aid. All programs used in the book are available at the specific book website accessible
through www.cengage.com/engineering.
• The Laplace transform method and the concept of the transfer function (or the impulsive
response) is used in MDOF problems. The sinusoidal transfer function is used to
solve MDOF problems with harmonic excitation.
• The topic of design for vibration suppression is covered where appropriate. The design
of vibration isolation for harmonic excitation is covered in Chapter 4, vibration isolation
from pulses is covered in Chapter 5, design of vibration absorbers is considered
in Chapter 6, and vibration isolation problems for general MDOF systems is considered
in Chapter 9.
To access additional course materials, please visit www.cengagebrain.com. At the
cengagebrain.com home page, search for the ISBN of your title (from the back cover of
your book) using the search box at the top of the page. This will take you to the product
page where these resources can be found.
The author acknowledges the support and encouragement of numerous people in the
preparation of this book. Suggestions for improvement were taken from many students
at The University of Akron. The author would like to especially thank former students
Ken Kuhlmann for assistance with the problem involving the rotating manometer in
Chapter 12, Mark Pixley for helping with the original concept of the prototype for the software
package available at the website, and J.B. Suh for general support. The author also
expresses gratitude to Chris Carson, Executive Director, Global Publishing; Chris Shortt,
Publisher, Global Engineering; Randall Adams, Senior Acquisitions Editor; and Hilda
Gowans, Senior Developmental Editor, for encouragement and guidance throughout the
project. The author also thanks George G. Adams, Northeastern University; Cetin
Cetinkaya, Clarkson University; Shanzhong (Shawn) Duan, South Dakota State
University; Michael J. Leamy, Georgia Institute of Technology; Colin Novak, University of
Windsor; Aldo Sestieri, University La Sapienza Roma; and Jean Zu, University of Toronto,
for their valuable comments and suggestions for making this a better book. Finally, the
author expresses appreciation to his wife, Seala Fletcher-Kelly, not only for her support and
encouragement during the project but for her help with the figures as well.

Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 The Study of Vibrations 1
1.2 Mathematical Modeling 4
1.2.1 Problem Identification 4
1.2.2 Assumptions 4
1.2.3 Basic Laws of Nature 6
1.2.4 Constitutive Equations 6
1.2.5 Geometric Constraints 6
1.2.6 Diagrams 6
1.2.7 Mathematical Solution 7
1.2.8 Physical Interpretation of Mathematical Results 7
1.3 Generalized Coordinates 7
1.4 Classification of Vibration 11
1.5 Dimensional Analysis 11
1.6 Simple Harmonic Motion 14
1.7 Review of Dynamics 16
1.7.1 Kinematics 16
1.7.2 Kinetics 18
1.7.3 Principle of Work-Energy 22
1.7.4 Principle of Impulse and Momentum 24
1.8 Two Benchmark Examples 27
1.8.1 Machine on the Floor of an Industrial Plant 27
1.8.2 Suspension System for a Golf Cart 28
1.9 Further Examples 29
1.10 Summary 34
1.10.1 Important Concepts 34
1.10.2 Important Equations 35
Problems 37
Short Answer Problems 37
Chapter Problems 41
CHAPTER 2 MODELING OF SDOF SYSTEMS 55
2.1 Introduction 55
2.2 Springs 56
2.2.1 Introduction 56
2.2.2 Helical Coil Springs 57
2.2.3 Elastic Elements as Springs 59
2.2.4 Static Deflection 61
2.3 Springs in Combination 62
2.3.1 Parallel Combination 62
2.3.2 Series Combination 62
2.3.3 General Combination of Springs 66
2.4 Other Sources of Potential Energy 68
2.4.1 Gravity 68
2.4.2 Buoyancy 70
2.5 Viscous Damping 71
2.6 Energy Dissipated by Viscous Damping 74
2.7 Inertia Elements 76
2.7.1 Equivalent Mass 76
2.7.2 Inertia Effects of Springs 79
2.7.3 Added Mass 83
2.8 External Sources 84
2.9 Free-Body Diagram Method 87
2.10 Static Deflections and Gravity 94
2.11 Small Angle or Displacement Assumption 97
2.12 Equivalent Systems Method 100
2.13 Benchmark Examples 106
2.13.1 Machine on a Floor in an Industrial Plant 106
2.10.2 Simplified Suspension System 107
2.14 Further Examples 108
2.15 Chapter Summary 116
2.15.1 Important Concepts 116
2.15.2 Important Equations 117
Problems 119
Short Answer Problems 119
Chapter Problems 123
CHAPTER 3 FREE VIBRATIONS OF SDOF SYSTEMS 137
3.1 Introduction 137
3.2 Standard Form of Differential Equation 138
3.3 Free Vibrations of an Undamped System 140
3.4 Underdamped Free Vibrations 147
3.5 Critically Damped Free Vibrations 154
3.6 Overdamped Free Vibrations 156
3.7 Coulomb Damping 160
3.8 Hysteretic Damping 167
3.9 Other Forms of Damping 171
3.10 Benchmark Examples 174
3.10.1 Machine on the Floor of an Industrial Plant 174
3.10.2 Simplified Suspension System 175
3.11 Further Examples 178
3.12 Chapter Summary 185
3.12.1 Important Concepts 185
3.12.2 Important Equations 186
Problems 188
Short Answer Problems 188
Chapter Problems 194
CHAPTER 4 HARMONIC EXCITATION OF SDOF SYSTEMS 205
4.1 Introduction 205
4.2 Forced Response of an Undamped System Due
to a Single-Frequency Excitation 208
4.3 Forced Response of a Viscously Damped System
Subject to a Single-Frequency Harmonic Excitation 214
4.4 Frequency-Squared Excitations 220
4.4.1 General Theory 220
4.4.2 Rotating Unbalance 222
4.4.3 Vortex Shedding from Circular Cylinders 225
4.5 Response Due to Harmonic Excitation of Support 228
4.6 Vibration Isolation 234
4.7 Vibration Isolation from Frequency-Squared Excitations 238
4.8 Practical Aspects of Vibration Isolation 241
4.9 Multifrequency Excitations 244
4.10 General Periodic Excitations 246
4.10.1 Fourier Series Representation 246
4.10.2 Response of Systems Due to General Periodic Excitation 251
4.10.3 Vibration Isolation for Multi-Frequency and Periodic
Excitations 253
4.11 Seismic Vibration Measuring Instruments 255
4.11.1 Seismometers 255
4.11.2 Accelerometers 256
4.12 Complex Representations 259
4.13 Systems with Coulomb Damping 260
4.14 Systems with Hysteretic Damping 265
4.15 Energy Harvesting 268
4.16 Benchmark Examples 273
4.16.1 Machine on Floor of Industrial Plant 273
4.16.2 Simplified Suspension System 274
4.17 Further Examples 281
4.18 Chapter Summary 289
4.18.1 Important Concepts 289
4.18.2 Important Equations 290
Problems 293
Short Answer Problems 293
Chapter Problems 297
CHAPTER 5 TRANSIENT VIBRATIONS OF SDOF SYSTEMS 313
5.1 Introduction 313
5.2 Derivation of Convolution Integral 315
5.2.1 Response Due to a Unit Impulse 315
5.3 Response Due to a General Excitation 318
5.4 Excitations Whose Forms Change at Discrete Times 323
5.5 Transient Motion Due to Base Excitation 330
5.6 Laplace Transform Solutions 332
5.7 Transfer Functions 337
5.8 Numerical Methods 340
5.8.1 Numerical Evaluation of Convolution Integral 340
5.8.2 Numerical Solution of Differential Equations 344
5.9 Shock Spectrum 350
5.10 Vibration Isolation for Short Duration Pulses 357
5.11 Benchmark Examples 361
5.11.1 Machine on Floor of Industrial Plant 361
5.11.2 Simplified Suspension System 362
5.12 Further Examples 365
5.13 Chapter Summary 370
5.13.1 Important Concepts 370
5.13.2 Important Equations 371
Problems 372
Short Answer Problems 372
Chapter Problems 374
CHAPTER 6 TWO DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS 383
6.1 Introduction 383
6.2 Derivation of the Equations of Motion 384
6.3 Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes 388
6.4 Free Response of Undamped Systems 393
6.5 Free Vibrations of a System with Viscous Damping 396
6.6 Principal Coordinates 398
6.7 Harmonic Response of Two Degree-Of-Freedom Systems 401
6.8 Transfer Functions 404
6.9 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 408
6.10 Frequency Response 411
6.11 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 414
6.12 Damped Vibration Absorbers 420
6.13 Vibration Dampers 424
6.14 Benchmark Examples 425
6.14.1 Machine on Floor of Industrial Plant 425
6.14.2 Simplified Suspension System 427
6.15 Further Examples 432
6.16 Chapter Summary 442
6.16.1 Important Concepts 442
6.16.2 Important Equations 443
Problems 444
Short Answer Problems 444
Chapter Problems 448
CHAPTER 7 MODELING OF MDOF SYSTEMS 459
7.1 Introduction 459
7.2 Derivation of Differential Equations Using the Free-Body
Diagram Method 461
7.3 Lagrange’s Equations 467
7.4 Matrix Formulation of Differential Equations for Linear Systems 478
7.5 Stiffness Influence Coefficients 483
7.6 Flexibility Influence Coefficients 492
7.7 Inertia Influence Coefficients 497
7.8 Lumped-Mass Modeling of Continuous Systems 499
7.9 Benchmark Examples 502
7.9.1 Machine on Floor of an Industrial Plant 502
7.9.2 Simplified Suspension System 506
7.10 Further Examples 508
7.11 Summary 517
7.11.1 Important Concepts 517
7.11.2 Important Equations 518
Problems 519
Short Answer Problems 519
Chapter Problems 523
CHAPTER 8 FREE VIBRATIONS OF MDOF SYSTEMS 533
8.1 Introduction 533
8.2 Normal-Mode Solution 534
8.3 Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes 536
8.4 General Solution 543
8.5 Special Cases 545
8.5.1 Degenerate Systems 545
8.5.2 Unrestrained Systems 548
8.6 Energy Scalar Products 552
8.7 Properties of Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes 555
8.8 Normalized Mode Shapes 558
8.9 Rayleigh’s Quotient 560
8.10 Principal Coordinates 562
8.11 Determination of Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes 565
8.12 Proportional Damping 568
8.13 General Viscous Damping 571
8.14 Benchmark Examples 574
8.14.1 Machine on Floor of an Industrial Plant 574
8.14.2 Simplified Suspension System 576
8.15 Further Examples 578
8.16 Summary 583
8.16.1 Important Concepts 583
8.16.2 Important Equations 584
Problems 585
Short Answer Problems 585
Chapter Problems 588
CHAPTER 9 FORCED VIBRATIONS OF MDOF SYSTEMS 593
9.1 Introduction 593
9.2 Harmonic Excitations 594
9.3 Laplace Transform Solutions 599
9.4 Modal Analysis for Undamped Systems and Systems
with Proportional Damping 603
9.5 Modal Analysis for Systems with General Damping 611
9.6 Numerical Solutions 614
9.7 Benchmark Examples 615
9.7.1 Machine on Floor of Industrial Plant 615
9.7.2 Simplified Suspension System 616
9.8 Further Examples 620
9.9 Chapter Summary 623
9.9.1 Important Concepts 623
9.9.2 Important Equations 624
Problems 625
Short Answer Problems 625
Chapter Problems 627
CHAPTER 10 VIBRATIONS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 633
10.1 Introduction 633
10.2 General Method 636
10.3 Second-Order Systems: Torsional Oscillations of a Circular Shaft 639
10.3.1 Problem Formulation 639
10.3.2 Free-Vibration Solutions 642
10.3.3 Forced Vibrations 650
10.4 Transverse Beam Vibrations 651
10.4.1 Problem Formulation 651
10.4.2 Free Vibrations 654
10.4.3 Forced Vibrations 662
10.5 Energy Methods 667
10.6 Benchmark Examples 672
10.7 Chapter Summary 676
10.7.1 Important Concepts 676
10.7.2 Important Equations 677
Problems 678
Short Answer Problems 678
Chapter Problems 682
CHAPTER 11 FINITE-ELEMENT METHOD 689
11.1 Introduction 689
11.2 Assumed Modes Method 690
11.3 General Method 693
11.4 The Bar Element 696
11.5 Beam Element 700
11.6 Global Matrices 705
11.7 Benchmark Example 709
11.8 Further Examples 714
11.9 Summary 726
11.9.1 Important Concepts 726
11.9.2 Important Equations 726
Problems 728
Short Answer Problems 728
Chapter Problems 730
CHAPTER 12 NONLINEAR VIBRATIONS 737
12.1 Introduction 737
12.2 Sources of Nonlinearity 738
12.3 Qualitative Analysis of Nonlinear Systems 743
12.4 Quantitative Methods of Analysis 747
12.5 Free Vibrations of SDOF Systems 749
12.6 Forced Vibrations of SDOF Systems
with Cubic Nonlinearities 753
12.7 MDOF Systems 759
12.7.1 Free Vibrations 759
12.7.2 Forced Vibrations 760
12.8 Continuous Systems 760
12.9 Chaos 761
12.10 Chapter Summary 769
12.10.1 Important Concepts 769
12.10.2 Important Equations 769
Problems 770
Short Answer Problems 770
Chapter Problems 775
CHAPTER 13 RANDOM VIBRATIONS 781
13.1 Introduction 781
13.2 Behavior of a Random Variable 782
13.2.1 Ensemble Processes 782
13.2.2 Stationary Processes 783
13.2.3 Ergodic Processes 784
13.3 Functions of a Random Variable 784
13.3.1 Probability Functions 784
13.3.2 Expected Value, Mean, and Standard Deviation 786
13.3.3 Mean Square Value 786
13.3.4 Probability Distribution for Arbitrary Function of Time 787
13.3.5 Gaussian Process 788
13.3.6 Rayleigh Distribution 791
13.3.7 Central Limit Theorem 792
13.4 Joint Probability Distributions 793
13.4.1 Two Random Variables 793
13.4.2 Autocorrelation Function 794
13.4.3 Cross Correlations 797
13.5 Fourier Transforms 797
13.5.1 Fourier Series In Complex Form 797
13.5.2 Fourier Transform for Nonperiodic Functions 798
13.5.3 Transfer Functions 801
13.5.4 Fourier Transform in Terms of f 802
13.5.5 Parseval’s Identity 802
13.6 Power Spectral Density 803
13.7 Mean Square Value of the Response 808
13.8 Benchmark Example 812
13.9 Summary 814
13.9.1 Important Concepts 814
13.9.2 Important Equations 815
13.10 Problems 817
13.10.1 Short Answer Problems 817
13.10.2 Chapter Problems 819
APPENDIX A UNIT IMPULSE FUNCTION AND UNIT STEP FUNCTION 825
APPENDIX B LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 827
B.1 Definition 827
B.2 Table of Transforms 827
B.3 Linearity 827
B.4 Transform of Derivatives 828
B.5 First Shifting Theorem 829
B.6 Second Shifting Theorem 830
B.7 Inversion of Transform 830
B.8 Convolution 831
B.9 Solution of Linear Differential Equations 831
APPENDIX C LINEAR ALGEBRA 833
C.1 Definitions 833
C.2 Determinants 834
C.3 Matrix Operations 835
C.4 Systems of Equations 836
C.5 Inverse Matrix 837
C.6 Eigenvalue Problems 838
C.7 Scalar Products 840
APPENDIX D DEFLECTION OF BEAMS SUBJECT
TO CONCENTRATED LOADS 842
APPENDIX E INTEGRALS USED IN RANDOM VIBRATIONS 846
APPENDIX F VIBES 847
REFERENCES 851
INDEX 853