Mechanical Fastening Joining and Assembly 2nd Edition By James A Speck

Pages 372
Views 688
Size 20.1 MiB
Downloads 97
Mechanical Fastening Joining and Assembly 2nd Edition By James A Speck

Tags:

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition. …………………………………………………………………….ix
Preface to the First Edition. …………………………………………………………………………xi
Acknowledgments. ………………………………………………………………………………….xiii
Author. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………xv
1 Fastener Functions and Assembly Testing. …………………………………………1
1.1 The Fastener Design Role. ……………………………………………………………1
1.2 Analysis of a Simple Metal Assembly. …………………………………………3
1.3 Fastening a More Complex Assembly……………………………………….13
1.4 Fastening Real-World Applications. …………………………………………..19
1.5 Fastener Statics. …………………………………………………………………………28
Reference. ……………………………………………………………………………………………33
2 Fastener Types and Their Production. ……………………………………………….35
2.1 Tension Fasteners. ……………………………………………………………………..36
2.1.1 Pan Head. ………………………………………………………………………36
2.1.2 Truss Head. ……………………………………………………………………37
2.1.3 Hex Head. ……………………………………………………………………..39
2.1.4 Socket Screws. ……………………………………………………………….40
2.1.5 Blind Rivets. …………………………………………………………………..42
2.1.6 Some Dimensions for Blind Rivets. ………………………………..42
2.1.7 Self-Clinching Studs. ……………………………………………………..43
2.1.8 Weld Studs. ……………………………………………………………………45
2.1.9 Grooved Pins. ………………………………………………………………..46
2.1.10 Split Knurl Drive Screws……………………………………………….47
2.1.11 Type “U” Drive Screws. …………………………………………………47
2.1.12 Self-Threading Screws. …………………………………………………..47
2.1.13 Locking Threads. …………………………………………………………..49
2.1.14 Cold-Heading Manufacturing Process. ………………………….49
2.1.15 Roll-Threading/Forming Process. ………………………………….51
2.1.16 Heat Treating of Metal Fasteners. …………………………………..52
2.1.17 Checking Fastener Hardness. ………………………………………..55
2.1.18 Screw Machining. ………………………………………………………….56
2.1.19 Other Tension Fasteners. ………………………………………………..57
2.2 Compression Fasteners. ……………………………………………………………..58
2.2.1 Set Screws. …………………………………………………………………….58
2.2.2 Washers. ………………………………………………………………………..58
2.3 Shear Fasteners. …………………………………………………………………………60
2.4 Adhesives. …………………………………………………………………………………60
2.5 Fastener Manufacturing Methods. …………………………………………….61
2.5.1 Roll-Threading and Other Screw-Threading
Processes. ………………………………………………………………………71
2.5.2 Some Additional Thoughts on Adhesives. ……………………..73
2.5.3 Some Additional Thoughts on Welding. ………………………..74
2.6 Fastener Dynamics. …………………………………………………………………..74
Reference. ……………………………………………………………………………………………76
3 Fastening and Joining Mechanics. …………………………………………………….77
3.1 Metal Joints. ………………………………………………………………………………77
3.1.1 Rigid Metal Joints. …………………………………………………………78
3.2 Nonmetal Joints. ………………………………………………………………………..93
3.2.1 Snap Fit Assembly. ………………………………………………………..94
3.2.2 Adhesive Assembly. ………………………………………………………94
3.2.3 Blind Rivet Assembly. ……………………………………………………95
3.2.4 Self-Threading Screw Assembly. ……………………………………95
3.2.5 Some Additional Thoughts. …………………………………………..97
3.3 Applications View of Fastener Functions. ………………………………….98
3.4 Fastener Strength of Materials. ………………………………………………..103
3.4.1 Engineering Model Method. ………………………………………..107
Reference. ………………………………………………………………………………………….113
4 Economic Factors in Fastener/Assembly Decisions. ………………………..115
4.1 Build Quantities. ……………………………………………………………………..117
4.1.1 Tools, Fixtures, and Equipment. …………………………………..120
4.1.2 Assembly Site. ……………………………………………………………..121
4.1.3 Assembly Documentation and Training. ……………………..121
4.1.4 Assembly Fastening Material Supply Channels. ………….122
4.2 Assembly Robustness. ……………………………………………………………..122
4.3 Legal Considerations and Constraints. …………………………………….124
4.3.1 Consensus Standards. ………………………………………………….126
4.3.2 Some Fastener Cases. …………………………………………………..126
4.3.2.1 Jet Engine Mounting Bolt. ………………………………126
4.3.2.2 Propeller Screw. ……………………………………………..127
4.3.2.3 Motorcycle Disk Brake Rotor Screws. …………….127
4.3.2.4 Fractured Valve Screws. …………………………………128
4.3.3 Bogus Bolting. ……………………………………………………………..128
4.4 Economic Factors in Fastener/Assembly Decisions. …………………133
4.5 Engineering Economics. ………………………………………………………….138
Suggested Reading. …………………………………………………………………………..144
5 Assemblies under Dynamic Loading. ……………………………………………..145
5.1 Mass Effects. ……………………………………………………………………………149
5.1.1 Four-Bolt I.C. Engine Main Bearing Supports. ……………..149
5.1.2 Mass Effects of Oil Pan and Gasket Screws. …………………150
5.1.3 Testing for Dynamic Loading Applications. ………………..153
5.2 Vibration. …………………………………………………………………………………154
5.3 Fatigue. ……………………………………………………………………………………157
5.4 Some Additional Dynamic Tests. …………………………………………….158
5.4.1 Some Thoughts on Dynamic Loading. …………………………160
5.5 Difference between Static and Dynamic Strength. …………………..161
5.6 Fastener Chemistry. …………………………………………………………………164
Reference. ………………………………………………………………………………………….165
6 Assembly Sites and Systems. …………………………………………………………..167
6.1 Accessibility. ……………………………………………………………………………167
6.2 Reusability Factors. ………………………………………………………………….169
6.3 Assembly Training. ………………………………………………………………….179
6.4 Degree of Automation. …………………………………………………………….180
6.5 Automatic Assembly Machines. ………………………………………………184
6.5.1 Station Tooling…………………………………………………………….186
6.5.2 Ergonomics. …………………………………………………………………187
6.5.3 Designed-In Flexibility………………………………………………..187
6.5.4 Seamless Handoff. ……………………………………………………….187
6.5.5 Setting Quantitative Targets. ……………………………………….187
6.6 Smart Machines and Robots. ……………………………………………………187
6.7 A Renewed Look at Modern Assembly. …………………………………..190
6.7.1 The Engineer and the Accountant. ……………………………….190
6.7.2 The Engineer and the Attorney. …………………………………..191
6.8 Fastener Numerical Methods. ………………………………………………….194
6.8.1 General Rules for Numerical Proficiency. …………………….194
6.8.2 Numbering Systems. ……………………………………………………195
6.8.3 Geometry. ……………………………………………………………………195
6.8.4 Algebra. ……………………………………………………………………….195
6.8.5 Trigonometry. ………………………………………………………………196
6.8.6 Statistics. ………………………………………………………………………196
6.8.7 Calculus—Differential and Integral. ……………………………197
6.8.8 Differential Equations. …………………………………………………197
6.8.9 Linear and Other Programming Techniques. ………………198
Reference. ………………………………………………………………………………………….198
7 Fastener Materials. …………………………………………………………………………..199
7.1 Steels. ………………………………………………………………………………………199
7.1.1 AISI 1010. ……………………………………………………………………..200
7.1.2 Response to Temperature: Annealing. …………………………201
7.1.2.1 Typical Fastener Application. …………………………201
7.1.2.2 AISI 1018. ……………………………………………………….201
7.1.3 Response to Temperature: Carbonitriding and Tempering. …………………………………………………………………..202
7.1.3.1 Typical Application. ……………………………………….202
7.1.3.2 AISI 1038. ……………………………………………………….202
7.1.4 Response to Temperature: Through or Neutral Hardening. …………………………………………………………………..203
7.1.4.1 AISI 4037. ……………………………………………………….203
7.1.5 Response to Temperature. ……………………………………………203
7.1.5.1 AISI 4140. ……………………………………………………….203
7.1.5.2 AISI 8640. ……………………………………………………….204
7.1.5.3 AISI 52100. ……………………………………………………..205
7.1.5.4 H-11. ……………………………………………………………….205
7.2 Stainless Steels. ………………………………………………………………………..206
7.2.1 Type 302 HQ. ……………………………………………………………….206
7.2.2 Type 303. ………………………………………………………………………207
7.2.3 Type 305. ………………………………………………………………………208
7.2.4 Type 410. ………………………………………………………………………208
7.2.5 Type 430. ………………………………………………………………………209
7.2.6 17-4 PH. ………………………………………………………………………..209
7.2.7 A 286. …………………………………………………………………………..210
7.3 Nonferrous Materials. ……………………………………………………………..211
7.3.1 Spectrographic Analysis. ……………………………………………..211
7.3.2 Carbon Analysis. ………………………………………………………….212
7.3.3 Magnetic Screening. …………………………………………………….212
7.3.4 Eddy Current Techniques. ……………………………………………212
7.3.5 Brass Alloys. ………………………………………………………………..212
7.3.6 Aluminum Alloys. ……………………………………………………….213
7.4 Other Fastener Materials. …………………………………………………………214
7.4.1 Titanium. ……………………………………………………………………..214
7.4.2 MP35N. ………………………………………………………………………..214
7.4.3 Monel. ………………………………………………………………………….214
7.4.4 Hastelloy. …………………………………………………………………….214
7.4.5 AerMet 100. ………………………………………………………………….215
7.4.6 Notes on Fastener Metallurgy. ……………………………………..217
7.4.7 Brazing Alloys. …………………………………………………………….217
7.4.8 Nonmetallic Fastener Materials. …………………………………..217
7.5 Fastener Materials in Today’s Environment. …………………………….218
7.6 The Fastener Laboratory. …………………………………………………………221
7.7 Electrical Theory and Fastening, Joining, and Assembly. ………..226
Reference. ………………………………………………………………………………………….230
8 Environmental Factors and Corrosion. ……………………………………………231
8.1 Corrosion of Fasteners and Assemblies. …………………………………..231
8.2 Corrosion Protection. ……………………………………………………………….235
8.3 Corrosion Testing. ……………………………………………………………………241
8.4 Some Thoughts on Sustainability. ……………………………………………242
8.5 Application Engineering Project Management. ……………………….243
8.6 Thermodynamics. ……………………………………………………………………245
Suggested Reading. …………………………………………………………………………..248
9 Assembly Analysis. ………………………………………………………………………….249
9.1 Circular Areas. ………………………………………………………………………..249
9.1.1 Pins, Shoulders, Shear Areas. ……………………………………….249
9.1.2 Hexagonal Area…………………………………………………………..249
9.1.3 Circular Volume. ………………………………………………………….250
9.1.4 Hexagonal Volume………………………………………………………250
9.1.5 Volume of a More Complex Shape. ………………………………251
9.1.5.1 Fastener Geometry. ………………………………………..251
9.1.6 Calculate Part Weight, Individual, Per Hundred, Per Thousand. ………………………………………………………………254
9.1.7 Calculate Fastener Elastic Elongation. ………………………….256
9.1.8 Calculate Upset Volume. ………………………………………………257
9.1.9 Find the Largest Head Diameter per Upset. …………………257
9.1.10 Calculating a Compound Fastener Shape. ……………………259
9.1.11 Estimating Screw Slot Torque. ……………………………………..259
9.1.12 Calculating Strip-to-Drive Ratios. ………………………………..260
9.1.13 Evaluating Drive Torque/Horsepower. ………………………..262
9.1.14 Calculating a Knurl Pitch. ……………………………………………263
9.1.15 Finding a Screw Diameter from a Target
Clamp Load. ………………………………………………………………..264
9.1.16 Calculating Pin Shear Strengths. ………………………………….264
9.1.16.1 Single Shear. …………………………………………………..265
9.1.16.2 Double Shear. …………………………………………………265
9.1.17 Calculating Torque–Tension Operating Charts. ……………266
9.1.18 Estimating Assembly Efficiency. ………………………………….266
9.2 Work from the Workshop. ……………………………………………………….268
9.2.1 Calculating Heading Upset Volumes and Diameter Ratios. …………………………………………………………..270
9.3 D & D 100. ……………………………………………………………………………….274
References. ………………………………………………………………………………………..275
Appendix A: Fastening, Joining, and Assembly Glossary. …………………..277
Appendix B: Ingenious Fasteners and Assemblies. ……………………………….281
Appendix C: Some Frequent Fastener Questions and Answers. …………..291
Appendix D: Article from American Fastener Journal. …………………………297
Appendix E: Some Additional Problem Solution Ideas and Summary Thoughts. ……………………………………………………………………………….349

Preface to the Second Edition

The second edition of Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly is presented as a guide and reference to all who engage in the mechanical arts. A decade and a half have passed since the preface to the first edition were written. This passage of time has affirmed many of the ideas expressed in that first edition. Time has also witnessed the development of some interesting, and for our purposes, intellectually important, technical progress in the assembly of products and in the design, manufacturing, and installation of fastener products and procedures. Time has not been idle even during periods when worldwide economic engines were moving at less than full throttle.
Ranging from the interest children exhibit in building things with toys such as interlocking blocks, rods, and connecting components to the advanced and sometimes strident adult voices and viewpoints expressed in the media, in academic institutions, and in political and public discourse around the world, a panoramic view of the subject of fastening and its foundational technologies, from the basics to the advanced is timely.
Research of technical education itself is undergoing at present a profound, and critically necessary, evaluation. And in the manufacture of products ranging from orthopedic hardware to aerospace, automotive, transportation, and defense products, the need to assemble and fasten components efficiently, and well into functional products of value, continues. In fact, as I write, the early reemergence of a growing U.S. manufacturing base can be witnessed in shops and manufacturing plants in large cities and small towns. We are making things! Knowledge and ideas build best when started from a solid foundation. What appears to me to becoming into focus is that manufacturing is a significant component of a nation’s economy. From a strategic viewpoint, reliance on other industrialized economies for manufactured goods leads to dependence and potential weak points in an economy’s self-reliance, even in a globally connected economy with many of today’s economies. Manufacturing prowess provides strength and options not otherwise always available. A common issue I hear frequently in my business travels is the constraint of trained, young manufacturing employees. As those of us who are older reduce our hours of participation in manufacturing enterprises and begin to age and retire, a new workforce will be required. There is no doubt that this younger workforce has world-class computer and telecommunication skills. It is hoped that this will be matched by innovation in the expansion and growth of engineering skills to transform tomorrow’s ideas and raw materials into value-producing, lifestyle-enhancing fastened products. I am optimistic.
In Chapter 1 of this edition, I have expanded the fastened components presented and reviewed. These are based on my experience in the field.

Preface to the Second Edition

end of each chapter is a review of engineering fundamentals with a focus on their application in the fastener industry. The first chapter concludes with a section on fastener statics. Using free body diagrams and learning to read the forces in a fastener and assembly are key skills. In Chapter 2, we take a deeper look at the fastener manufacturing processes, especially those I was exposed to in my career, cold heading and roll threading. Fastener dynamics is added in Chapter 2 to focus our attention on forces in motion, such as a wind turbine hub turning in strong winds. In Chapter 3, we take a look at materials in fastening and add fastener strength of materials. Somewhere in my fastener application engineering career I started to think of statics, dynamics, and strength of materials as the big three. Each of these serve as a key to good fastener applications work. Chapter 4 expands our review of the economics of fastening and provides some tools for engineering economics. Too often, technical people tend to steer clear of economic and financial factors. This does not have to be so. Neglecting economic and financial factors can lead to an over-reliance on technology to the detriment of the application and more importantly, the career advancement of the practitioner. Money is the lifeblood of an enterprise. In Chapter 4, we speak its language.
In Chapter 5, we examine the difference in static and dynamic strengths. These can sometimes present fastener application issues if not addressed properly. We also present some ideas with respect to chemistry in fastener work. Chapter 6 brings us a renewed look at modern assembly where the fundamentals still hold but with new constraints and concerns. Under the umbrella of numerical methods, we take an overview of the mathematical skills that provide the foundation of application engineering. Chapter 7 takes a look at fastener materials in this new century, provides some observations about the fastener laboratory, and discusses electrical theory. In Chapter 8, sustainability is focused along with some thoughts for application product management. A discussion of thermodynamics concludes Chapter 8 with material on energy systems and some new thought maps for application analysis. Chapter 9 provides the reader with a look at work from the fastener workshops that have been well received over the years and a look at a favorite application, D&D 100.
This second edition adds two new appendices. Appendix D presents, for the first time as a collection, some articles from the American Fastener Journal. Appendix E adds some concluding thoughts and application topics. I have learned that some tasks come more easily, some are more difficult, if not all. I realize that even the most accomplished writers make errors, which can survive through to the final published work. I have further learned that I am neither particularly accomplished in writing, nor adept at avoiding, editing out, and otherwise providing written proof to the reader of my lack of error-free composition. All such errors occurring in this edition are all my own. I request your sympathetic stance when finding all such lapses and request you to accept them, knowing that I am truly contrite.
www.Techbooksyard.com
xi
Preface to the First Edition
Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly is intended as a guide and reference source for product designers, engineers, manufacturers, and students interested in a solid foundation in assembly and joining. A product is only as strong as its weakest link. For many products, the weakest area is at the joints where the components are assembled. Well-fastened assemblies result from good design, quality parts, and properly executed assembly procedures and production processes. Personnel having these responsibilities benefit from knowledge of mechanical assembly engineering and fastening technology. Observing the current generation of product designers and engineers, one cannot help but be awed by their grasp of electronics and computer-based designs and all of the associated skills. But also observable is a decline in attention directed toward mechanical technology as the newer electronics-based products gain favor.
This, in itself, is not cause for concern so long as the mechanical products and processes perform well. Mechanical proficiency, however, can decline with time unless studied and applied. With prolonged inattention to the fundamental mechanical technologies, including fastening and assembly work, progress in these other areas will show the detrimental effects and not advance at a pace and intensity that will do justice to the products that these newer technologies make possible.
Chapter 1 explains the fastening function in depth. In Chapters 2 through 4, you will learn the types of fastening approaches that can be used together with examples of what they cost and how they work. In Chapters 5 through 9, specific joining applications, including vibration, standard and special materials, and environmental factors are detailed, and useful reference charts are included for future use. The appendices serve as a useful reference for fastening terms and concepts and give examples of the current generation of high-efficiency assemblies and fastening/joining trends for the future.
Fastener companies, the technical community and its engineering societies, standards organizations, and academia all provide useful and valuable engineering knowledge on fasteners and fastening. But by their nature, they are more narrowly focused and/or constrained in scope by time and economic considerations. This book’s goal is to help bridge that gap.
Current and future generations of product designers, engineers, manufacturers, and students should have access to a solid knowledge base of mechanical fastening, joining, and assembly information. The output of their creative efforts should yield the highest integrity, efficiency, and analytical ability of fastening and joining.
www.Techbooksyard.com
xii
Preface to the First Edition
Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly will enable readers with a start-ing interest in assembly technology as well as those with a more in-depth background in this field to gain a deeper understanding of fastener and fastening design and point the way to assembling more efficient and competitive products.