Introduction to Precision MACHINE DESIGN and Error Assessment by Samir Mekid

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Introduction to Precision MACHINE DESIGN and Error Assessment by Samir Mekid

Contents

Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..ix
Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xi
Editor …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
Contributors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….xv
Contributor Profi les …………………………………………………………………………………………………………xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction to Precision Engineering ……………………………………………………………….1
Samir Mekid
Chapter 2 Motion Errors ………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
Samir Mekid
Chapter 3 Thermal Problems in Machine Tools Design and Operation ………………………………. 75
Jerzy Jedrzejewski
Chapter 4 Design Strategies and Machine Key-Components ………………………………………….. 129
Samir Mekid
Chapter 5 Introduction to Parallel Kinematic Machines ………………………………………………… 193
Samir Mekid
Chapter 6 Precision Control ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
Tan Kok Kiong, Andi Sudjana Putra, and Sunan Huang
Chapter 7 Actuators, Transmission, and Sensors …………………………………………………………… 253
Tan Kok Kiong and Samir Mekid
Chapter 8 Current Issues in Error Modeling—3D Volumetric Positioning Errors ……………..289
Charles Wang
Index …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 323

Preface

The development of precision engineering has greatly increased our living standards. High-precision
manufacturing not only offers quality and reliability for conventional products but also opens
windows to entirely new products at the standard, meso-, and microscale with new features such as
mechatronics, high density function, and high performance.
Precision engineering involves development at the forefront of current technology. Current
advanced technology products are dependent on high-precision manufacturing processes, machines,
control technologies, and even nanotechnology. Achieving ultrahigh precision in the manufacture of
extremely small devices opens up prospects in several diverse and futuristic fi elds such as massive
computing power, biomedical devices, global personal communication devices, and high-resolution
optical devices. Precision engineering is a multidisciplinary fi eld that includes machine tool design,
materials, machining processes with novel manufacturing methods, metrology, sensors and actuators,
microsystems, biomedical applications, and other relevant fi elds. Precision engineering requires an
in-depth understanding of most physical phenomena within the previous disciplines and their effects
at the micro- and nanoscale.
With the current trend toward highest precision micromachining and assembly systems based on
continuous miniaturization and functional integration of products, application areas with enormous
market growth are extended to automotive goods, optoelectronics, biomedicine, microchemistry, and
consumer goods. Microelectronics needs mechanical interfaces, electrical and optical connections
with smaller geometries, and structures and tolerances down to nanometers.
This book is a result of several years of teaching the various topics that have been covered. It has
been written to meet the growing need of mechanical engineers, and others, to understand design
process issues with a particular focus on most errors associated with precision design, machine
diagnostics, error modeling, and compensation. This book is necessary as it carries complementary
information to existing books on precision machine design. The various chapters have been written
by contributors who are international experts in their respective fi elds. This book is designed
to cover key topics for any course in precision machine design. It covers precision machine design
principles and related physical aspects, strategies of design for various kinematics concepts and
scales, and gives an introduction to most types of errors. This book consists of eight chapters
treating specifi c topics. The content is suitable for students at level 3 and who are pursuing masters
in mechanical and aerospace engineering.
The topics presented in this book are as follows:
• Machine design principles for serial kinematic machines at the standard and microscale
with an introduction to parallel kinematic machine design
• Precision control required for machines, actuation, and sensing
• Introduction to most available errors in machines and their various aspects with emphasis
on thermal errors
• Modeling of errors and global budgeting
Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to precision engineering and applications. Chapter 2 introduces
error measurements with fundamental defi nitions for measurement characterization and error classifi
cation. An example of numerical-controlled machine error assessment is discussed in great
detail. Chapter 3 is concerned with an in-depth discussion of thermal error sources and transfer,
modeling and simulation, compensation, and machine tool diagnostics. Chapter 4 introduces principles
and strategies to design standard-size precision machines. Techniques are extended to precision
micromachines. A number of second-order phenomena that may affect precision are discussed.
This chapter presents description of several case studies. Chapter 5 considers parallel kinematic
machines and techniques of design and modeling of workspace and its corresponding dexterity.
Chapter 6 is concerned with the precision control techniques covering linear systems and nonlinear
aspects. It includes fundamentals of motion control and control design strategies. Several case studies
are discussed at the end of the chapter. Chapter 7 introduces various types of drives, actuators,
and sensors required for machines along with several examples. Chapter 8 presents position error
compensation modeling, measurements using laser interferometry, and examples and programs for
different types of numerical controllers.