Handbook of International Electrical Safety Practices

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Handbook of International Electrical Safety Practices

Contents

Acknowledgement xxv
List of contributors xxvii
Glossary of abbreviations xxix
Preface xxxiii
Chapter 1 How to Evaluate Safety Programs 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Creating a Culture of Safety 2
1.3 Good Housekeeping 10
1.3.1 General Information 10
1.3.1.1 Establishing a Good
Housekeeping Program 11
1.3.1.2 Dust and Dirt Removal 13
1.3.1.3 Employee Facilities 14
1.3.1.4 Surfaces 14
1.3.1.5 Light Fixtures 15
1.3.1.6 Aisles and Stairways 15
1.3.1.7 Spill Control 15
1.3.1.8 Tools and Equipment 15
1.3.1.9 Maintenance 16
1.3.1.10 Waste Disposal 16
1.3.1.11 Storage 16
1.4 New Employee Orientation 17
1.5 Worker Rights 18
Chapter 2 Meters and Monitors 23
2.1 Air Quality Testing and Monitoring 23
2.1.1 Introduction 23
2.1.2 Methods of Sampling and Testing 24
2.1.3 Samplers and Monitors 25
Diffusive : Samplers for Air
Monitoring
Color Diffusion Tubes
Active Samplers
Continuous Emissions Monitors
Batteries
Photoionization
Meters
Infrared Analyzers
Toxic Gas Meters
Ozone Meter
Mercury
Analyzer-Gold Film
Analyzer
Direct-Reading
Particle Monitors
Combustible Gas
Meters
Oxygen Meters
Bioaerosol Monitors
Adverse Conditions
Annex-Instrument Chart
Bibliography
Î Testing and Monitoring
Introduction
Noise Monitors and Meters
2.2.2.1
2.2.2.2
Sound Level Meters
Personal Dosimeters
Occupational Noise Exposure Standard

Bibliography
Exposure
Measurements
Audiometric Tests
Record Retention
Access to Records
Transfer of Records

2.3 Radiation Monitors and Meters 52
2.3.1 Introduction 52
2.3.2 Light 53
2.3.3 Ionizing Radiation 53
2.3.4 Nonionizing Radiation 53
2.3.5 Survey Meters for Radiation Detection 54
2.3.5.1 Ion Chamber Counter 55
2.3.5.2 Proportional Counter 56
2.3.5.3 Geiger-Müller (GM) Counter 56
2.3.5.4 Comparison of Gas Filled
Detectors 57
2.3.6 Pocket Dosimeters 58
2.3.6.1 Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter 58
2.3.6.2 Digital Electronic Dosimeter 59
2.3.7 Audible Alarm Rate Meters and Digital
Electronic Dosimeters 60
2.3.8 Film Badges 60
2.3.9 Thermoluminescent Dosimeters 62
2.3.10 Annex – Guide to Meter Selection
and Applications 62
2.3.11 Bibliography 66
2.4 Electrical/Electronics Testing Meters 66
2.4.1 Introduction 66
2.4.2 Electronic Test Equipment Types 67
2.4.2.1 Basic Test Equipment 67
2.4.2.2 Probes 68
2.4.2.3 Analyzers 68
2.4.2.4 Signal-generating devices 68
2.4.2.5 Miscellaneous Devices 69
2.4.3 General Information on Safe Use 69
Chapter 3 General Safety Practices 71
3.1 Safe Chemical Handling 71
3.1.1 Introduction 71
3.1.2 Reference Standards 72
3.1.2.1 Explanation of Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) 72
3.1.2.1.1 Product Identification 72
3.1.2.1.2 Component Data 72
viii CONTENTS
3.1.2.1.3 Precautions for
Safe Handling and
Storage 74
3.1.2.1.4 Physical Data 74
3.1.2.1.5 Personal Protective
Equipment
Requirements 76
3.1.2.1.6 Fire and Explosion
Hazard Information 76
3.1.2.1.7 Reactivity
Information 79
3.1.2.1.8 First Aid 80
3.1.2.1.9 Toxicology and
Health Information 80
3.1.2.1.10 Transportation
Information 82
3.1.2.1.11 Spill and Leak
Procedures 82
3.1.2.1.12 Waste Disposal 82
3.1Í.1.13 Definition of Terms 82
3.1.2.2 Occupational Safety and
Health Administration 111
3.1.2.3 National Institute for
Occupational Safety and
Health 113
3.1.2.4 American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists 115
3.1.2.5 Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry 116
3.1.2.6 World Health Organization 117
3.1.3 Safe Chemical Exposure Tables 117
3.2 Job Hazards Analysis Assessment 118
3.2.1 Introduction 118
3.2.2 Responsibility and Tailgate Meetings 118
3.2.3 Hazards Assessment 119
3.2.3.1 Purpose of Hazards
Assessment 119

Performing Safety
Inspections
Inspection Preparation
Hazard Classification
Inspection Equipment
Inspection Process
Closeout Review
Abatement Plan
Hazard Assessment and
PPE Checklists
Bibliography
Personal Protective Equipment
General Provisions
Requirements of a PPE Program
Guidelines for PPE Selection
Worker ‘ Training
Eye and Face Protection
Prescription Lenses
Eye Protection for Exposed
Workers
Types of Protection
Welding Operations
Laser Operations
3.3.7 Head Protection

3.3.9.3 Chemical- and
Liquid-Resistant Gloves
3.3.9.4 Protective Gloves Care
3.3.10 Protective Equipment for the Body
3.3.11 Hearing Protection
3.3.12 Respiratory Protection
3.3.12.1 Definitions
3.3.12.2 Establishing a Respiratory
Protection Program
3.3.12.3 Levels of Protection
3.3.12.4 Rules for Breathing
Air Quality and Use
3.3.13 Bibliography
First Aid and Resuscitation
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 First Aid Assessments
3.4.3 Elements of a First Aid Training
Program
3.4.4 Periodic Program Updates
3.4.5 First Aiders
3.4.6 First Aid Training and Certification
3.4.7 First Aid for Electric Shock
3.4.8 Skills Update
3.4.9 First Aid Supplies
3.4.10 Bibliography
Fire Protection, Evacuation,
First Responder and Emergency Planning
3.5.1 Flammability Properties
3.5.1.1 General Information
3.5.1.2 Flammability Designation
3.5.2 Ignition Temperature
3.5.3 Flammability Limits
3.5.4 Vapor Density
3.5.5 Specific Gravity
3.5.6 Water Solubility
3.5.7 Responding to Fires
3.5.8 Fire Fighting Agents
3.5.8.1 Water
3.5.8.2 Foam

3.5.8.3 Alcohol-Resistant Foams
3.5.8.4 High Expansion Foams
3.5.8.5 Other Extinguishing
Agents
3.5.8.6 Carbon Dioxide
Electrical Fire Prevention
I Firefighting Guidance
3.5.10.1 Types
3.5.10.2 Firefighting Agents
and Extinguishers
3.5.10.3 Vehicles
3.5.10.4 Firefighting Gear
Specialized Rescue Procedures
3.5.12 First Responder to Electrical
Fire Incidents
3.5.13 Evacuation Planning
3.5.13.1 Designated Roles and
Responsibilities
3.5.13.2 Preparation & Planning
for Emergencies
3.5.13.3 Evacuation Procedure
3.5.13.4 General
3.5.13.5 Template for Emergency
Evacuation Plan
3.5.14 Bibliography
Excavations and Trenching
Safety Guidelines
Excavation and Trenching
Safety Program
3.6.4.1 Introductory Notes
3.6.4.2 Safety Coordinator
3.6.4.3 Training and Duties of
Program Participants
3.6.4.4 Training and Duties of
Workers
3.6.4.5 Training and Duties of
the Project Manager
3.6.4.6 Contractor Awareness,
Duties and Responsibilities 238
3.6.4.7 Specific Excavation
Requirements 238
3.6.4.8 Protection of the Public 239
3.6.4.9 Protection of Workers in
Excavations 239
3.6.4.10 Personal Protective Equipment 242
3.6.4.11 Walkways and Guardrails 243
3.6.4.12 Protection from Hazards
Associated with Water
Accumulation 243
3.6.4.13 Stability of Adjacent
Structures 244
3.6.4.14 Protection of Employees from
Falling Objects and Loose
Rocks or Soil 245
3.6.4.15 Inspection by the project
manager 245
3.6.4.16 Pre-Êntry Checklist 246
3.6.5 Requirements for Protective Systems 250
3.6.5.1 Protection of Employees in
Excavations 250
3.6.5.2 Materials and Equipment 251
3.6.5.3 Installation and Removal
of Support 251
3.6.5.4 Additional Requirements for
Support Systems for Trench
Excavations 252
3.6.5.5 Sloping and Benching Systems 252
3.6.5.6 Shield Systems 252
3.6.6 Definitions 253
3.6.7 Bibliography 256
3.7 Confined Spaces 256
3.7.1 Identifying Confined Spaces 256
3.7.2 Identifying Confined Space Hazards 258
3.7.2.1 Oxygen-Deficient
Atmospheres 259
3.7.2.2 Flammable Atmospheres 259
CONTENTS xin
Toxic Atmospheres
Mechanical and Physical
Hazards
7.3 Model Confined Space Entry Program
Identifying All Confined
Spaces
Preventing Unauthorized
Entry
The Permit System
Planning the Entry
Conducting Pre-Entry
Training
Preparing the Confined
Space for Entry
Utilizing Safety Equipment
Atmospheric Testing
Procedures
Confined Space Cleaning
Procedures
3.7.3.10 Rescue Procedures
7.4 Personnel Responsibilities
and Training
3.7.4.1
3.7.4.2
3.7.4.3
3.7.4.4
3.7.4.5
Responsibilities of the
Director of Environmental
Health & Safety
Responsibilities and Training
Requirements of Supervisors
or Their Designated
Representatives
Responsibilities and
Training Requirements
of Entry Supervisors
Responsibilities and Training
Requirements of Authorized
Entrants
Responsibilities and Training
Requirements of Attendants
7.5 Definitions
7.6 Bibliography
Chapter 4 Safe Use of Equipment
4.1 Hand Tools and Workshop Machines
What are the Hazards of Hand Tools?
What are the Dangers
of Power Tools?
Guards
Operating Controls and Switches
Electric Tools
Portable Abrasive Wheel Tools
Pneumatic Tools
Liquid Fuel Tools
4.1.10 Powder-Actuated Tools
4.1.11 Hydraulic Power Tools
4.1.12 General Requirements of Safety
4.1.13
in Workshops Policy
Machinery Installation
4.1.14 Machine Controls
4.1.15 Machine Guards
4.1.16 Service Installations
4.1.17
4.1.18
Grinding and Polishing Machines
Milling Machines
4.1.19 Metal-Cutting Guillotines
4.1.20 General Considerations
General Requirements
4.2.2.1 Rules for All Ladder Types
4.2.2.2 Rules for Specific Types
of Ladder
Ladder Hazards /Prevention Tips
Ladder Selection
Ladder Maintenance
4.2.5.1 Using Extension Ladders
4.2.5.2 Setting Up an Extension
Ladder
4.2.5.3 Climbing a Fixed Ladder