DC Power Supplies Power Management and Surge Protection for Power Electronic Systems

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DC Power Supplies Power Management and Surge Protection for Power Electronic Systems

Contents

Preface………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………………………..xiii
About the Author……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xv
Contributors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xvii
1 Review of Fundamentals Related to DC Power Supply
Design and Linear Regulators
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-1
1.2 Simple Unregulated DC Power Supply and Estimating the Essential
Component Values………………………………………………………………………………… 1-2
1.3 Linear Regulators…………………………………………………………………………………… 1-3
1.4 Low-Dropout Regulators……………………………………………………………………… 1-18
2 Switching Power Supply Topologies and Design Fundamentals
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..2-1
2.2 Why Switch Modes: An Overall Approach…………………………………………….2-2
2.3 Basic Switch-Mode Power Supply Topologies…………………………………………2-3
2.4 Applications and Industry-Favorite Configurations…………………………….2-33
2.5 A Few Design Examples and Guidelines………………………………………………2-39
3 Power Semiconductors
3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..3-1
3.2 Power Diodes and Thyristors………………………………………………………………….3-2
3.3 Gate Turn-Off Thyristors……………………………………………………………………..3-18
3.4 Bipolar Power Transistors…………………………………………………………………….3-20
3.5 Power MOSFETs…………………………………………………………………………………..3-28
3.6 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)…………………………………………… 3-45
3.7 MOS-Controlled Thyristor (MCT)……………………………………………………….3-50
4 Resonant Converters and Wireless Power Supplies
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..4-1
4.2 Fundamentals of Resonant Converters…………………………………………………..4-1
4.3 Resonant DC-DC Converters…………………………………………………………………4-5
4.4 Load Resonant Converters for Contactless Power Supplies………………….4-11
viii Contents
5 Control Loop Design of DC-to-DC Converters
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..5-1
5.2 Feedback Control and Frequency Response……………………………………………5-1
5.3 Poles, Zeros, and S-Domain……………………………………………………………………5-2
5.4 Stability Using Bode Plots………………………………………………………………………5-3
5.5 Linear Regulators’ Feedback and Loop Stability…………………………………….5-4
5.6 Stability…………………………………………………………………………………………………5-11
5.7 Feedback Loop and Stability of Switch-Mode Power Supplies………………5-19
5.8 Digital Control……………………………………………………………………………………..5-27
5.9 Control Modes of Switch-Mode Converters…………………………………………5-33
6 Power Management
6.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..6-1
6.2 Design Approaches and Specifications…………………………………………………..6-1
6.3 Specifying DC Power Supply Requirements…………………………………………6-13
6.4 Loading Considerations……………………………………………………………………….6-18
6.5 Powering High-Power Processors and ASICs……………………………………….6-20
7 Off-the-Line Switching Power Supplies
7.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-1
7.2 Building Blocks of a Typical Off-the-Line Switching Power Supply………. 7-1
7.3 Rectifier Section…………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-2
7.4 Popular Transformer-Isolated Configurations for Off-the-Line
Power Supplies and Industry Approaches……………………………………………… 7-7
7.5 Magnetic Components…………………………………………………………………………. 7-11
7.6 Output Blocks………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-18
7.7 Efficiency Improvements and Synchronous Rectification……………………. 7-21
7.8 EMI Reduction……………………………………………………………………………………..7-25
7.9 Power Supply Protection………………………………………………………………………7-28
7.10 Age-Related Aspects…………………………………………………………………………….. 7-35
7.11 Testing of Power Supplies……………………………………………………………………..7-36
8 Rechargeable Batteries and Their Management
8.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..8-1
8.2 Battery Terminology………………………………………………………………………………8-2
8.3 Battery Technologies: An Overview……………………………………………………….8-5
8.4 Lead-Acid Batteries………………………………………………………………………………..8-8
8.5 Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Batteries……………………………………………………….8-13
8.6 Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries…………………………………………………………….8-16
8.7 Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries…………………………………………………8-18
8.8 Reusable Alkaline Batteries………………………………………………………………….8-22
8.9 Zn-Air Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………8-24
8.10 Battery Management…………………………………………………………………………….8-25
8.11 Battery Communication and Related Standards…………………………………..8-47
8.12 Battery Safety……………………………………………………………………………………… 8-49
8.13 Future…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8-51
Contents ix
9 Protection of Systems from Surges and Transients
9.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..9-1
9.2 Types of Disturbances and Power Quality Issues……………………………………9-2
9.3 Principles of Surge Protection Techniques……………………………………………..9-9
9.4 Surge Protection Standards and Practices…………………………………………….9-16
9.5 Practical Design Considerations…………………………………………………………..9-26
Appendix A…………………………………………………………………………..AppendixA-1
Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………..AppendixB-1
Index………………………………………………………………………………..Index-1

Preface

In mid-1976, I was a young EE graduate starting my first industry job at the area control
center of the Department of Civil Aviation in Sri Lanka. When I met my senior
engineer, B. L. Ramanayake, on my first day of work, he took me to the Alcatel KLB-5
Message Switching System, a monster TTL IC-based real-time computer system (no
microprocessor-based systems were there at that time), and showed me a massive
30-volume documentation set. He said when the system fails, you have read these
documents and repair the fault. The system was a large set of equipment cabinets full
of basic TTL families and core memories, with just double-sided PCBs, linear power
supplies, and wire-wrapped back planes supported by a 20 kVA UPS system with a
massive battery bank. As a fresh 22-year-old graduate, I was stunned, since I have not
taken a course on computer science, and thought of the amount of data to be referred
to in a repair attempt.
Within a year, after five months of training in a subsidiary company of Alcatel in
Paris, when I started attempting fault diagnosis on this monster system I realized that
what Ramanayake said on my first day of work was absolutely true. For a period of more
than five years, I detailed logic circuits, analog power supplies, UPS systems, and applied
the hard-earned practical know-how in my repair attempts. The instrumentation available
was only a 300 MHz Tektronix scope, multimeter, and a PCB tester. At every fault
appearing in my system, I felt that I was not a true engineer until I was able to fix it.
I was also lucky to work as a commissioning engineer installing solid-state VHF omniranges
(VORs) and distance-measuring equipment (DME) for air navigation during the
same period to learn a lot more analog- and mixed-signal design approaches in realworld
navaids. From 1982 to 1985, I accepted a job in Saudi Arabia to work as an electronics
engineer doing maintenance on Ericsson-AXE 10 digital exchanges with eight-bit
microprocessors in fault-tolerant time-sharing designs dealing with telephone switching.
As an engineer who had never worked in the telecom area, I was to learn the telecom jargon
soon … but the applicable fundamentals I learned in my time in aviation helped me
fast-track into the application of real-time processor systems in digital telephony.
In summary, during my first 10 years it was a massive exposure and a challenge to
learn the fundamentals and apply them in scientific fault diagnosis. Later, this exposure
was extremely helpful in my 16-year-long research/research-management career, at the
xii Preface
Arthur C. Clarke Institute for Modern Technologies (ACCIMT) back in Sri Lanka, to
creatively apply fundamentals in power electronic circuit designs.
To summarize my 25 years of early career, I simply learned that practically applying
Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s laws, equivalent circuits, device characteristics, and a reasonable
amount of simple math is all an electronic circuit designer will have to use creatively.
Once you start enjoying this world of circuit design, even during your vacation time you
can think of electronic circuits, with no stress in your brain!
With the inspiration given to me by Sir Arthur C. Clarke (who predicted satellite
communication in 1945, writing a paper to Wireless World magazine) and Prof.
John Robinson Pierce (a former executive director of Bell Labs, and the engineer who
named the transistor), I was able to document my hard-earned knowledge in six published
books, with this my seventh attempt, while completing a 10-year spell as a university
academic.
In this work I have attempted to summarize the information in several hundreds of
published papers (authored by subject experts) to guide the people who intend to learn
power electronics (PE) and the design of PE circuits as applicable to modern-day electronic
systems. I am very thankful to all my readers who have encouraged me to keep
my book writing in a continuum. If you point out any errors here, I will be very thankful
to you.
Enjoy power electronics, a serious enabling technology in the world of greener electronic
systems.