Coal Combustion Products Utilization Handbook

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Coal Combustion Products Utilization Handbook

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Contents

Coal Combustion Products
Utilization Handbook
Chapter 1 Background and History of We Energies Coal 1
Combustion Products (CCPs)
Chapter 2 CCPs and Electric Power Generation 9
Electric Power Generation 9
CCPs Generation 10
Properties of Fly Ash 16
Properties of Bottom Ash 20
Properties of Boiler Slag 23
Properties of FGD Gypsum 25
Current We Energies CCP Sources 27
Chapter 3 Properties of We Energies Coal Combustion 35
Products
Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash 36
Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Bottom Ash 39
Moisture-Density Relationship (ASTM D1557) 40
Engineering Properties of We Energies Bottom Ash 40
Results of Testing to AASHTO Standards 45
Physical and Chemical Properties of We Energies Flue Gas 48
Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum
Overview of the Chemical Reaction from a Wet-Limestone Scrubber 50
FGD Filter Cake 51
Chapter 4 Concrete and Concrete Masonry Products Containing 54
We Energies Fly Ash
Introduction 54
Background on Hydration Reaction, Cementitious, and Pozzolanic Activity 55
Concrete Containing We Energies Fly Ash 56
Compressive Strength of Concrete Containing We Energies ASTM C618, 61
Class C Fly Ash (Phase I Study)
Time of Set, Modulus of Elasticity, Drying Shrinkage and Poisson’s Ratio 71
For We Energies ASTM C618 Class C Fly Ash Concrete (Phase II Study)
Abrasion Resistance of Concrete Containing We Energies ASTM C618, 79
Class C Fly Ash
Chloride Ion Permeability of High Strength We Energies Fly Ash Concrete 84
Containing Low Cement Factor
High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete – Pilot Projects 95
Pavement Construction with High Volume We Energies Class C and 98
Class F Fly Ash Concrete
Long Term Performance of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavement 112
Roller Compacted No-Fines Concrete Containing We Energies Fly Ash for 115
Road Base Course
Bricks, Blocks, and Paving Stones Produced with We Energies Fly Ash 119
CalStar Green Bricks and Pavers Using We Energies’ Fly Ash 124
Fly Ash Concrete for Precast/Prestressed Products 126
Conductive Concrete Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash 129
(US Patent 6,461,424 B1) (35)
Conductive Concrete Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash 134
and Carbon Fibers (US Patent 6,821,336)
Contents
We Energies iv
Coal Combustion Products
Utilization Handbook
Chapter 4 Concrete and Concrete Masonry Products Containing 54
We Energies Fly Ash
Conductive Concrete Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash 141
And Spent Carbon Sorbent (US Patent 7, 578, 881)
Long Term Field Performance Testing of Conductive Concrete 142
Resistivity at Three We Energies Sites
Electrically Conductive High-Carbon Fly Ash (HCFA) Concrete Used at a 149
Telecommunication Tower
Usage of Conductive Concrete for Energy Storage – Electric Cell 152
Conductive Concrete Containing We Energies High-Carbon Fly Ash and
Pulp Mill Residuals In Place of Air Entraining Agent for High Durability
Concrete
Development of Self-Consolidating Concrete Containing We Energies 160
Class C Fly Ash
Development of Economical High- Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete 164
Chapter 5 Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM) Containing 168
We Energies Fly Ash
Introduction 168
We Energies CLSM Developments 169
CLSM Produced with We Energies High-Lime 169
(ASTM C-618 Class C) Fly Ash
CLSM Containing We Energies Valley Power Plant Off-Spec 173
(ASTM C618 Class F) Fly Ash
CLSM Made with We Energies Port Washington Power Plant Off-Spec 177
(ASTM C618 Class F) Fly Ash
Electric Resistivity, Thermal Conductivity and Plastics Compatibility 179
Properties of CLSM Produced with We Energies Fly Ash
Conductive CLSM Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash 182
(US Patent 6,461,424,B1) (35)
Conductive CLSM Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash and 185
Carbon Fibers (US Patent 6,821,336)
Conductive CLSM Containing We Energies High Carbon Fly Ash and 191
Spent Carbon Sorbent (US Patent 7,578,881)
Commonly Used CLSM Mixtures 193
Pilot Projects Using We Energies CLSM 194
WisDOT Low Permeability CLSM with We Energies Fly Ash 196
Precautions to be Taken When Using CLSM Flowable Fly Ash Slurry 196
Advantages of Using CLSM Fly Ash Slurry 197
Chapter 6 Commercial Applications of We Energies 199
Bottom Ash
Introduction 199
Road Base and Sub-Base 199
Field Study 203
Bottom Ash as Base Course Aggregate for Flexible Pavement Sections 204
We Energies Bottom Ash Backfill 205
Bottom Ash as an Anti-Skid Material 208
Contents
v We Energies
Coal Combustion Products
Utilization Handbook
Chapter 6 Commercial Applications of We Energies 199
Bottom Ash
Bottom Ash as an Aggregate in Asphaltic Concrete 209
Bottom Ash as a Bike Trail Base and Surface Material 209
We Energies Bottom Ash as a Manufactured Soil Ingredient 209
We Energies Bottom Ash as a Soil Ingredient for Green Roofs 213
We Energies Recovered Ash and Reburing 214
We Energies Bottom Ash as Fine Aggregate in Concrete 219
Masonry Products
We Energies Bottom Ash as Fine Aggregate in “Eco-Pad” (In-Situ 225
Mixed Concrete Pavement)
“Eco-pad” at Menomonee Falls Service Center 234
Chapter 7 Natural Mined Gypsum and Commercial Applications 237
Of We Energies FGD Gypsum
Introduction 237
FGD Gypsum Use in Wallboard Manufacturing 240
FGD Gypsum Use in Portland Cement 246
FGD Gypsum Use in Agriculture 247
Chapter 8 Fly Ash Stabilized Cold In-Place and Full Depth 254
Reclamation of Recycled Asphalt Pavements, Stabilized
Soils, and Stabilized Coal Ash
Introduction 254
Case Study I: Highland Avenue, Mequon 255
Case Study II: CTH JK, Waukesha 259
Case Study III: Commercial Office Building Parking Lot 265
Case Study IV: PPPP Haul Road Pavement, Marquette, Michigan 266
Chapter 9 Fly Ash Metal Matrix Composites 276
Introduction 276
Preparation of Ash Alloy Metal Matrix Composites 277
Properties of Ash Alloy 279
Cenospheres 282
Advantages of Using Ash Alloys 289
Chapter 10 Environmental Considerations of We Energies 291
Coal Combustion Products and Regulatory Requirements
Introduction 291
Chemical Elements in Coal Ash 292
Leaching from Coal Ash Land Applications 293
Leaching from Products Containing Coal Combustion Products 300
Radioactivity of Coal Ash 304
Coal Ash Exemptions 306
Regulations of Ash Utilization – Wisconsin Department of Natural 307
Resources
Coal Combustion Products
Utilization Handbook
Chapter 10 Environmental Considerations of We Energies 291
Coal Combustion Products and Regulatory Requirements
Regulations of We Energies Ash Utilization – Michigan 308
Department of Environmental Quality
Ammonia Removal-Ash Benefication (US Patent 6,755,901) 314
Mercury Removal-Ash Beneficiation (Patent 7,217,401) 315
Multi-Pollutant Control Using TOXECON Process 320
U.S. EPA Mercury Emission Regulation 321
Use of Ash Landfill Leachate (Mineral Water) in Concrete (Patent Pending) 321
Chapter 11 Carbon Dioxide is a Coal Combustion Product 330
Introduction 330
Algae Farming 331
CO2 Capture 332
CO2 Mineralization Using Various By-Product Materials 332
Carbonation Testing per RILEM 333
Comparison to Commercial Aggregate Materials 359
Benefits of Commercial By-Product Aggregates 362
Chapter 12 Sample Specifications 365
Specification for We Energies Cast-in-Place Concrete 365
Specification for We Energies Bottom Ash Structural Backfill 374
Specification for We Energies Bottom Ash as Granular Backfill 376
Specification for We Energies Flowable Fly Ash Slurry Controlled 378
Low Strength Material (CLSM)
Sample Specification for We Energies Class C Fly Ash Stabilized 383
Cold In-place Recycled (CIR) Asphaltic Concrete Pavement also
known as Full Depth Reclamation
Specification for Self-Consolidating Concrete Using We Energies 389
Class C Fly Ash
Chapter 13 References 397
Appendix A Product Data Sheets 405
Appendix B Radioactivity in Coal and Fly Ash 413
Appendix C Field Guide for Recycling HMA Pavement (CIR) 420

Preface

This third edition of the coal combustion products utilization handbook is
developed with the intent of providing practical, technical and regulatory
compliance information to the users of We Energies’ coal combustion
products. This edition has been expanded to include additional information
on FGD gypsum applications in manufacturing and agriculture. We hope
that this book will serve as a ready reference tool for engineers, architects,
construction managers and contractors in using We Energies coal
combustion products (CCPs) in various construction applications. This
handbook contains chapters dedicated to major product categories and their
applications.
The information in this handbook will help develop an understanding of the
generation, properties, construction applications and performance of CCPs. It
also contains sample specifications that can be used as references in
developing project specifications that utilize CCPs. A list of cited as well as
additional references is provided at the end of this handbook for the reader
who is looking for a deeper understanding of the material.
The authors invite your questions and comments via e-mail or mail for
consideration in future editions, and can be contacted at:
Bruce W. Ramme, Ph.D., P