Applications of Solar Energy Himanshu Tyagi

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Applications of Solar Energy Himanshu Tyagi
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Preface

Energy demand has been rising remarkably due to increasing population and
urbanization. Global economy and society are significantly dependent on the energy
availability because it touches every facet of human life and its activities. Transportation
and power generation are major examples of energy. Without the transportation
by millions of personalized and mass transport vehicles and availability of
24 × 7 power, human civilization would not have reached contemporary living
standards.
First International Conference on ‘Sustainable Energy and Environmental
Challenges’ (SEEC-2017) was organized under the auspices of ‘International
Society for Energy and Environmental Sustainability’ (ISEES) by the ‘Center of
Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing’ (CIAB), Mohali, from February 26 to 28,
2017. ISEES was founded at IIT Kanpur in January 2014 with an aim of spreading
knowledge in the fields of energy, environment, sustainability, and combustion.
The Society’s goal is to contribute to the development of clean, affordable, and
secure energy resources and a sustainable environment for the society and to spread
knowledge in the above-mentioned areas and spread awareness about the environmental
challenges, which the world is facing today. ISEES is involved in various
activities such as conducting workshops, seminars, conferences in the domains of
its interests. The Society also recognizes the outstanding works done by the young
scientists and engineers for their contributions in these fields by conferring them
awards under various categories.
This conference provided a platform for discussions between eminent scientists
and engineers from various countries including India, USA, South Korea, Norway,
Malaysia, and Australia. In this conference, eminent speakers from all over the
world presented their views related to different aspects of energy, combustion,
emissions, and alternative energy resource for sustainable development and cleaner
environment. The conference started with four mini-symposiums on very topical
themes, which included (i) New Fuels and Advanced Engine Combustion,
(ii) Sustainable Energy, (iii) Experimental and Numerical Combustion, and
(iv) Environmental Remediation and Rail Road Transport. The conference had 14
technical sessions on topics related to energy and environmental sustainability and a
panel discussion on ‘Challenges, Opportunities and Directions of Technical Education
and Research in the Area of Energy, Environment and Sustainability’ to
wrap up the three-day technical extravaganza. The conference included 2 plenary
talks, 12 keynote talks, 42 invited talks from prominent scientists, 49 contributed
talks, and 120 posters. A total of 234 participants and speakers attended this
three-day conference, which hosted Dr. V.K. Saraswat, Member NITI Ayog, India,
as a chief guest for the award ceremony of the ISEES. This conference laid out the
road map for technology development, opportunities, and challenges in this technology
domain. The technical sessions in the conference included Advances in IC
Engines and Fuels; Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels; Combustion Processes;
Renewable Energy: Prospects and Technologies; Waste to Wealth-Chemicals and
Fuels; Energy Conversion Systems; Numerical Simulation of Combustion Processes;
Alternate Fuels for IC Engines; Sprays and Heterogeneous Combustion of
Coal/Biomass; Biomass Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals—Thermochemical
Processes; Utilization of Biofuels; and Environmental Protection and Health. All
these topics are very relevant for the country and the world in the present context.
The society is grateful to Prof. Ashok Pandey for organizing and hosting this
conference, which led to germination of this series of monographs, which included
16 books related to different aspects of energy, environment, and sustainability.
This is the first time that such voluminous and high-quality outcome has been
achieved by any society in India from one conference.
The editors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the authors for
submitting their work in a timely manner and revising it appropriately at short
notice. We would like to express our special thanks to Dr. Chandan Banerjee, Dr.
Anirban Bhattacharya, Dr. Santosh B. Bopche, Dr. Laltu Chandra, Dr. Sudipta De,
Dr. Ambesh Dixit, Dr. Varun Goel, Dr. D.B. Jani, Dr. Shyam Karagadde, Dr.
Vikrant Khullar, Dr. Pradeep Kumar, Dr. Manish Mishra, Dr. Dibakar Rakshit, Dr.
Sandip Saha, Dr. Harjit Singh, Dr. Sanjeev Soni, and Dr. S. Suresh, who reviewed
various chapters of this monograph and provided their valuable suggestions for
improving the manuscripts. We acknowledge the support received from various
funding agencies and organizations for the successful conduct of the first ISEES
conference SEEC-2017, where these monographs germinated. These include
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (special thanks to Dr.
Sanjay Bajpai); TSI, India (special thanks to Dr. Deepak Sharma); Tesscorn, India
(special thanks to Sh. Satyanarayana); AVL India; Horiba, India; Springer (special
thanks to Swati Mehershi); CIAB (special thanks to Dr. Sangwan).
This monograph is intended for researchers working in the field of solar energy,
and we hope that the book would be of great interest to the professionals and
postgraduate students involved in the study of solar thermal collectors, energy
storage systems (using phase change materials), and power generation using solar
energy. The main objective of this monograph is to promote a better and more
accurate understanding of the various applications of solar energy.

Contents

Part I General
Introduction to Applications of Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Prodyut Ranjan Chakraborty
and Satvasheel Powar
Distributed Polygeneration Using Solar Energy: A Future Sustainable
Energy System for India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Avishek Ray and Sudipta De
Part II Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Thermal Collectors
Effect of Reflector Absorptivity on Radiative Heat Exchange in Case
of Solar Receiver Collection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Santosh B. Bopche
Numerical Investigation of the Temperature Distribution of a Solar
Cavity Receiver Wall Using Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Suneet Kumar and Santosh B. Bopche
Part III Volumetric Solar Thermal Collectors
Direct Absorption Solar Thermal Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Vikrant Khullar, Harjit Singh and Himanshu Tyagi
Solar Thermal Energy: Use of Volumetric Absorption in Domestic
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Vishal Bhalla, Vikrant Khullar, Harjit Singh and Himanshu Tyagi
Thermal and Materials Perspective on the Design of Open Volumetric
Air Receiver for Process Heat Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Gurveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Ambesh Dixit and Laltu Chandra
xi
Part IV Thermal Storage of Solar Energy
Solar Thermal Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Aniket D. Monde, Amit Shrivastava and Prodyut R. Chakraborty
Review on Integration of Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Energy
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Prashant Saini, Dhiraj V. Patil and Satvasheel Powar
Solar Thermal Energy Storage Using Graphene Nanoplatelets-Added
Phase Change Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
S. Suresh and Srikanth Salyan
Part V Various Applications of Solar Energy: Cooling, Cooking,
Efficient Buildings
Water–Lithium Bromide Absorption Chillers for Solar Cooling . . . . . . 209
Ashok Verma, Satish and Prodyut R. Chakraborty
Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant—Vapor Compression Hybrid
Air-Conditioning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
D. B. Jani, Manish Mishra and P. K. Sahoo
Solar Food Processing and Cooking Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Abhishek Saxena, Varun Goel and Mehmet Karakilcik
Visual Comfort Based Algorithmic Control for Roller Shade
and Assessment of Potential Energy Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Lakshya Sharma and Dibakar Rakshit
Part VI Power Generation Using Solar Energy
Solar Updraft Tower—A Potential for Future Renewable Power
Generation: A Computational Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Ankit Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar and Balkrishna Mehta
Manufacturing Techniques of Perovskite Solar Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Priyanka Kajal, Kunal Ghosh and Satvasheel Powar