Advances in Solar Energy Research Himanshu Tyagi

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Advances in Solar Energy Research Himanshu Tyagi

Preface

Energy demand has been rising remarkably due to increasing population and
urbanization. Global economy and society are significantly dependent on energy
availability because it touches every facet of human life and its activities.
Transportation and power generation are two major examples. Without the transportation
by millions of personalized and mass transport vehicles and availability of
24  7 power, human civilization would not have reached contemporary living
standards.
The International Society for Energy, Environment, and Sustainability (ISEES)
was founded at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur), India, in
January 2014 with the aim of spreading knowledge/awareness and catalyzing
research activities in the fields of energy, environment, sustainability, and combustion.
The society’s goal is to contribute to the development of clean, affordable,
and secure energy resources and a sustainable environment for the society and to
spread knowledge in the above-mentioned areas and create awareness about the
environmental challenges, which the world is facing today. The unique way
adopted by the society was to break the conventional silos of specializations
(engineering, science, environment, agriculture, biotechnology, materials, fuels,
etc.) to tackle the problems related to energy, environment, and sustainability in a
holistic manner. This is quite evident by the participation of experts from all fields
to resolve these issues. ISEES is involved in various activities such as conducting
workshops, seminars, and conferences in the domains of its interest. The society
also recognizes the outstanding works done by the young scientists and engineers
for their contributions in these fields by conferring them awards under various
categories.
The second international conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environmental
Challenges” (SEEC-2018) was organized under the auspices of ISEES from
December 31, 2017, to January 3, 2018, at JN Tata Auditorium, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore. This conference provided a platform for discussions between
eminent scientists and engineers from various countries including India, USA,
South Korea, Norway, Finland, Malaysia, Austria, Saudi Arabia, and Australia. In
this conference, eminent speakers from all over the world presented their views
related to different aspects of energy, combustion, emissions, and alternative energy
resources for sustainable development and a cleaner environment. The conference
presented five high-voltage plenary talks from globally renowned experts on topical
themes, namely “Is It Really the End of Combustion Engines and Petroleum?” by
Prof. Gautamkalghatgi, Saudi Aramco; “Energy Sustainability in India: Challenges
and Opportunities” by Prof. Baldev Raj, NIAS, Bangalore; “Methanol Economy:
An Option for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Challenges” by Dr. Vijay
Kumar Saraswat, Hon. Member (S&T), NITI Ayog, Government of India;
“Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle for Power Generation” by Prof.
Pradip Dutta, IISc Bangalore; and “Role of Nuclear Fusion for Environmental
Sustainability of Energy in Future” by Prof. J. S. Rao, Altair Engineering.
The conference included 27 technical sessions on topics related to energy and
environmental sustainability including 5 plenary talks, 40 keynote talks, and 18
invited talks from prominent scientists, in addition to 142 contributed talks, and 74
poster presentations by students and researchers. The technical sessions in the
conference included Advances in IC Engines: SI Engines, Solar Energy: Storage,
Fundamentals of Combustion, Environmental Protection and Sustainability,
Environmental Biotechnology, Coal and Biomass Combustion/Gasification, Air
Pollution and Control, Biomass to Fuels/Chemicals: Clean Fuels, Advances in IC
Engines: CI Engines, Solar Energy: Performance, Biomass to Fuels/Chemicals:
Production, Advances in IC Engines: Fuels, Energy Sustainability, Environmental
Biotechnology, Atomization and Sprays, Combustion/Gas Turbines/Fluid
Flow/Sprays, Biomass to Fuels/Chemicals, Advances in IC Engines: New
Concepts, Energy Sustainability, Waste to Wealth, Conventional and Alternate
Fuels, Solar Energy, Wastewater Remediation, and Air Pollution. One of the
highlights of the conference was the rapid-fire poster sessions in (i) Energy
Engineering, (ii) Environment and Sustainability, and (III) Biotechnology, where
more than 75 students participated with great enthusiasm and won many prizes in a
fiercely competitive environment. More than 200 participants and speakers attended
this four-day conference, which also hosted Dr. Vijay Kumar Saraswat, Hon.
Member (S&T), NITI Ayog, Government of India, as the chief guest for the book
release ceremony, where 16 ISEES books published by Springer, under a special
dedicated series “Energy, Environment, and Sustainability” were released. This is
the first time that such significant and high-quality outcome has been achieved by
any society in India. The conference concluded with a panel discussion on
“Challenges, Opportunities & Directions for Future Transportation Systems,”
where the panelists were Prof. Gautam Kalghatgi, Saudi Aramco; Dr. Ravi
Prashanth, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Shankar Venugopal, Mahindra and Mahindra; Dr.
Bharat Bhargagava, DG, ONGC Energy Center; and Dr. Umamaheshwar, GE
Transportation, Bangalore. The panel discussion was moderated by Prof. Ashok
Pandey, Chairman, ISEES. This conference laid out the road map for technology
development, opportunities, and challenges in energy, environment, and sustainability
domains. All these topics are very relevant for the country and the world in
the present context. We acknowledge the support received from various funding
agencies and organizations for the successful conduct of the second ISEES
conference SEEC-2018, where these books germinated. We would therefore like to
acknowledge SERB, Government of India (special thanks to Dr. Rajeev Sharma,
Secretary); ONGC Energy Center (special thanks to Dr. Bharat Bhargava); TAFE
(special thanks to Sh. Anadrao Patil); Caterpillar (special thanks to Dr. Ravi
Prashanth); Progress Rail, TSI, India (special thanks to Dr. Deepak Sharma);
Tesscorn, India (special thanks to Sh. Satyanarayana); GAIL, VOLVO; and our
publishing partner Springer (special thanks to Swati Meherishi).
The editors would like to express their sincere gratitude to a large number of
authors from all over the world for submitting their high-quality work in a
timely manner and revising it appropriately at short notice. We would like to
express our special thanks to all the reviewers (Dr. Eric Anderson, Dr. Vishal
Bhalla, Dr. Anirban Bhattacharya, Dr. Muhammad Burhan, Dr. Prodyut
Chakraborty, Dr. Deepak Ganta, Dr. Manas Gartia, Dr. Ankur Gupta, Dr. Khairul
Habib, Dr. M. Kum Ja, Dr. Dinesh Kabra, Dr. Vikrant Khullar, Dr. E. Anil Kumar,
Dr. Atul Lanjewar, Dr. Rudrodip Majumdar, Dr. Balkrishna Mehta, Dr. Amaresh
Mishra, Dr. Sourav Mitra, Dr. Dhiraj Patil, Dr. Smarat Rao, Dr. Bidyut Baran Saha,
Dr. Sandip Saha, Dr. Marie-Pierre Santoni, Dr. Soumitra Satapathi, Dr. Sanjeev
Soni, Dr. Vijay Kumar Soni, Dr. K. R. Justin Thomas, Dr. Ponnulakshmi VK,
Dr. Vivek Vishwakarma), who reviewed various chapters of this book and provided
very valuable suggestions to the authors to improve their manuscript.
This monograph is intended for researchers working in the field of solar energy,
and we hope that the book would be of great interest to the professionals and
post-graduate students involved in the study of solar thermal collectors, solar
radiation forecasting, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated photovoltaics, energy
storage systems, solar fuels, and various solar-based applications (such as desalination,
cooling, gasification, cooking). The main objective of this monograph is to
promote a better and more accurate understanding of the various aspects of research
in the field of solar energy.

Contents

Part I General
1 Introduction to Advances in Solar Energy Research . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal,
Prodyut R. Chakraborty and Satvasheel Powar
2 Techno-Economic Potential of Large-Scale Solar Deployment
in the US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Shahinur Rahman, Arif I. Sarwat and Haneen Aburub
3 Solar Radiation Assessment and Forecasting Using
Satellite Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Akriti Masoom, Yashwant Kashyap and Ankit Bansal
Part II Solar Cells
4 Advances in Solar Energy: Solar Cells and Their
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Amlan K. Pal and Hannah C. Potter
5 Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fabrication,
Characterization, and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
D. Ganta, K. Combrink and R. Villanueva
6 Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) for Rooftop—Compact
System Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Muhammad Burhan, Muhammad Wakil Shahzad and Kim Choon Ng
7 Metal–Organic Frameworks in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells . . . . . . . 175
I. R. Perera, C. V. Hettiarachchi and R. J. K. U. Ranatunga
8 Fullerene-Free Molecular Acceptors for Organic
Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Amaresh Mishra and Satya Narayan Sahu
9 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells as Potential Candidate
for Indoor/Diffused Light Harvesting Applications:
From BIPV to Self-powered IoTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
G. Gokul, Sourava C. Pradhan and Suraj Soman
10 On the Use of Origami for Solar Energy Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Swapnik Jagarlapudi, Sudheer Siddapureddy and Dhiraj V. Patil
Part III Solar Thermal Systems
11 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solar Thermal Power
Generation—Overview of the Technology and Microchannel
Receiver Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Vinod Narayanan, Brian M. Fronk, Thomas L’Estrange
and Erfan Rasouli
12 Reduced Order Heat Exchanger Models for Low-to-Medium
Temperature Range Solar Thermal Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Rudrodip Majumdar and Sandip K. Saha
13 Shell-and-Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage
(ST-LHTES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Amit Shrivastava and Prodyut R. Chakraborty
Part IV Applications of Solar Energy
14 Current Trends and Future Roadmap for Solar Fuels . . . . . . . . . . 445
Gurudayal
15 Low GWP Refrigerants for Energy Conservation
and Environmental Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Kutub Uddin, Bidyut Baran Saha, Kyaw Thu and Shigeru Koyama
16 Application of Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption
Solar Collector in Once-Through Multistage Flash
Desalination System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Kapil Garg, Vikrant Khullar, Sarit K. Das and Himanshu Tyagi
17 Experimental Investigation into the Applicability
of Nanoparticles in Purification of Sewage Water
Through Usage of Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Virender Ohri and Vikrant Khullar
xii Contents
18 Solar Assisted Gasification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Anirudh Singh, Ankur Kaundal, Raj Krishna Jha, Satvasheel Powar
and Atul Dhar
19 Solar Thermal Powered Bakery Oven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Ayushi Mishra, Satvasheel Powar and Atul Dhar