AC ELECTRIC MOTORS CONTROL ADVANCED DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS Editor Fouad Giri

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AC ELECTRIC MOTORS CONTROL ADVANCED DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS Editor Fouad Giri

Contents

List of Contributors xvii
Preface xxi
1 Introduction to AC Motor Control 1
Marc Bodson and Fouad Giri
1.1 AC Motor Features 1
1.2 Control Issues 3
1.2.1 State-Feedback Speed Control 3
1.2.2 Adaptive Output-Feedback Speed Control 3
1.2.3 Fault Detection and Isolation, Fault-Tolerant Control 4
1.2.4 Speed Control with Optimized Flux 6
1.2.5 Power Factor Correction 7
1.3 Book Overview 8
1.3.1 Control Models for AC Motors 9
1.3.2 Observer Design Techniques for AC Motors 9
1.3.3 Control Design Techniques for Induction Motors 10
1.3.4 Control Design Techniques for Synchronous Motors 11
1.3.5 Industrial Applications of AC Motors Control 12
References 13
Part One Control Models for AC Motors
2 Control Models for Induction Motors 17
Abderrahim El Fadili, Fouad Giri, and Abdelmounime El Magri
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Induction Motors—A Concise Description 18
2.3 Triphase Induction Motor Modeling 20
2.3.1 Modeling Assumptions 20
2.3.2 Triphase Induction Motor Modeling 20
2.3.3 Park Transformations 22
2.3.4 Two-Phase Models of Induction Motors 26
2.3.5 Doubly-Fed Induction Motor Model 31
vi Contents
2.4 Identification of Induction Motor Parameters 32
2.4.1 Identification of Mechanical Parameters 32
2.4.2 Identification of Electrical Parameters 35
2.5 Conclusions 39
References 39
3 Control Models for Synchronous Machines 41
Abdelmounime El Magri, Fouad Giri, and Abderrahim El Fadili
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Synchronous Machine Structures 42
3.3 Preliminaries 43
3.3.1 Modeling Assumptions 43
3.3.2 Three-Phase to Bi-Phase Transformations 44
3.3.3 Concordia-Park Transformation (αβ to dq) 45
3.4 Dynamic Modeling of Wound-Rotor Synchronous Motors 45
3.4.1 Oriented dq-Frame Model of Salient Pole WRSM 48
3.5 Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Modeling 50
3.5.1 PMSM Modeling in abc-Coordinates 50
3.5.2 PMSM Model in the Rotating dq-Frame 51
3.5.3 PMSM Model in the Fixed Bi-Phase αβ-Frame 54
3.6 Conclusions 55
References 56
Part Two Observer Design Techniques for AC Motors
4 State Observers for Estimation Problems in Induction Motors 59
Gildas Besanc¸on and Alexandru T¸ iclea
4.1 Introduction 59
4.2 Motor Representation and Estimation Issues 60
4.2.1 Problem Statement 60
4.2.2 Short Literature Review 61
4.3 Some Observer Approaches 63
4.3.1 Estimation under known and constant speed and Parameters 63
4.3.2 Estimation under known Speed and Parameters 64
4.3.3 Estimation under unknown Speed and known Parameters 64
4.3.4 Estimation in the presence of unknown Speed and/or Parameters 66
4.4 Some Illustration Results 66
4.4.1 State and Parameter Estimation under known Speed 68
4.4.2 State and Speed Estimation under known Parameters 69
4.4.3 State, Parameter, and Speed Estimation 71
4.4.4 Estimation close to Unobservability 74
4.5 Conclusions 75
References 76
Contents vii
5 State Observers for Active Disturbance Rejection in
Induction Motor Control 78
Hebertt Sira Ram´ırez, Felipe Gonz´alez Monta˜nez, John Cort´es Romero, and
Alberto Luviano-Ju´arez
5.1 Introduction 78
5.2 A Two-Stage ADR Controller Design for the Induction Motor 80
5.2.1 The Flux Simulator 80
5.2.2 Formulation of the Problem and Background Results 81
5.2.3 Assumptions 81
5.2.4 Problem Formulation 81
5.2.5 Control Strategy 82
5.2.6 Experimental Results 86
5.3 Field-Oriented ADR Armature Voltage Control 90
5.3.1 Control Decoupling Property of the Induction Motor System 91
5.3.2 Problem Formulation 92
5.3.3 Control Strategy 92
5.3.4 Experimental Results 95
5.A Appendix 99
5.A.1 Generalities on Ultra-Models and Observer-Based Active
Disturbance Rejection Control 99
5.A.2 Assumptions 99
5.A.3 Observing the uncertain System through the Ultra-Model 101
5.A.4 The Observer-Based Active Disturbance Rejection Controller 102
References 103
6 Observers Design for Systems with Sampled Measurements, Application
to AC Motors 105
Vincent Van Assche Philippe Dorl´eans Jean-Franc¸ois Massieu
and Tarek Ahmed-Ali
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Nomenclature 106
6.3 Observer Design 107
6.3.1 Nonlinear System Model 107
6.3.2 Observer Design with a Time-Delay Approach 108
6.3.3 Observer Design with an Output Predictor 113
6.4 Application to the AC Motor 114
6.4.1 Model of the AC Motor 114
6.4.2 Observer for AC Machine with Sampled and Held Measurements 117
6.4.3 Observer for the AC Machine with Predictor 118
6.4.4 Simulation 119
6.5 Conclusions 121
References 121
viii Contents
7 Experimental Evaluation of Observer Design Technique
for Synchronous Motor 123
Malek Ghanes and Xuefang Lin Shi
7.1 Introduction 123
7.1.1 Problem Statement 123
7.1.2 State of the Art and Objectives 124
7.2 SPMSM Modeling and its Observability 125
7.2.1 SPMSM Model 125
7.2.2 Quick Review on the Observability of SPMSM 125
7.3 Robust MRAS Observer 125
7.3.1 Reference Model 125
7.3.2 Adjustable Model 127
7.3.3 Adaptation Mechanism 128
7.3.4 Rotor Position Observer 129
7.4 Experimental Results 129
7.4.1 Nominal Conditions 130
7.4.2 Parameter Variation Effect 132
7.4.3 Load Torque Effect 133
7.5 Conclusions 133
References 134
Part Three Control Design Techniques for Induction Motors
8 High-Gain Observers in Robust Feedback Control of Induction Motors 139
Hassan K. Khalil and Elias G. Strangas
8.1 Chapter Overview 139
8.2 Field Orientation 140
8.3 High-Gain Observers 144
8.4 Speed and Acceleration Estimation using High-Gain Observers 146
8.4.1 Speed Estimation using a Mechanical Sensor 146
8.4.2 Speed and Acceleration Estimation using a Mechanical Sensor 147
8.4.3 Speed Estimation without a Mechanical Sensor 147
8.5 Flux Control 149
8.6 Speed Control with Mechanical Sensor 151
8.7 Speed Control without Mechanical Sensor 153
8.8 Simulation and Experimental Results 156
8.9 Conclusions 157
References 157
9 Adaptive Output Feedback Control of Induction Motors 158
Riccardo Marino, Patrizio Tomei, and Cristiano Maria Verrelli
9.1 Introduction 158
9.2 Problem Statement 159
Contents ix
9.3 Nonlinear Estimation and Tracking Control for Sensorless Induction Motors 161
9.3.1 Estimation and Tracking Control Algorithm 162
9.3.2 Stability Analysis 164
9.4 Nonlinear Estimation and Tracking Control for the Output Feedback Case 175
9.4.1 Estimation and Tracking Control Algorithm 175
9.4.2 Stability Proof 175
9.5 Simulation Results 176
9.5.1 Sensorless Case 177
9.5.2 Output Feedback Case 180
9.6 Conclusions 186
References 186
10 Nonlinear Control for Speed Regulation of Induction Motor with
Optimal Energetic Efficiency 188
Abderrahim El Fadili, Abdelmounime El Magri, Hamid Ouadi, and Fouad Giri
10.1 Introduction 188
10.2 Induction Motor Modeling with Saturation Effect Inclusion 190
10.3 Controller Design 194
10.3.1 Control Objective 194
10.3.2 Rotor Flux Reference Optimization 194
10.3.3 Speed and Flux Control Design and Analysis 197
10.4 Simulation 202
10.5 Conclusions 205
References 205
11 Experimental Evaluation of Nonlinear Control Design Techniques for
Sensorless Induction Motor 207
Jes´us De Le´on, Alain Glumineau, Dramane Traore, and Robert Boisliveau
11.1 Introduction 207
11.2 Problem Formulation 208
11.2.1 Control and Observation Problem 209
11.3 Robust Integral Backstepping 209
11.3.1 Controller Design using an Integral Backstepping Method 209
11.4 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control 212
11.4.1 Switching Vector 214
11.4.2 Discontinuous Input 215
11.5 Adaptive Interconnected Observers Design 215
11.6 Experimental Results 218
11.6.1 Integral Backstepping Control and Adaptive Observer 221
11.6.2 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control and Adaptive Observer 224
11.7 Robust Nonlinear Controllers Comparison 228
11.7.1 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control 229
11.7.2 Integral Backstepping Control 230
11.7.3 Experimental Results: Comparison 230
x Contents
11.8 Conclusions 231
References 231
12 Multiphase Induction Motor Control 233
Roberto Zanasi and Giovanni Azzone
12.1 Introduction 233
12.2 Power-Oriented Graphs 234
12.2.1 Notations 235
12.3 Multiphase Induction Motor Complex Dynamic Modeling 236
12.3.1 Hypothesis for the Induction Motor Modeling 236
12.3.2 Complex Dynamic Modeling of the Induction Motor 237
12.4 Multiphase Indirect Field-Oriented Control with Harmonic Injection 243
12.4.1 Five-Phase Indirect Rotor Field-Oriented Control 245
12.4.2 Five-Phase IRFOC Simulation Results 247
12.5 Conclusions 251
References 251
13 Backstepping Controller for DFIM with Bidirectional AC/DC/AC
Converter 253
Abderrahim El Fadili, Vincent Van Assche, Abdelmounime El Magri, and Fouad Giri
13.1 Introduction 253
13.2 Modeling “AC/DC/AC Converter—Doubly-Fed Induction Motor”
Association 255
13.2.1 Doubly-Fed Induction Motor Model 255
13.2.2 Modeling of the System “DC/AC Inverter–DFIM” 257
13.2.3 AC/DC Rectifier Modeling 257
13.3 Controller Design 260
13.3.1 Control Objectives 260
13.3.2 Motor Speed and Stator Flux Norm Regulation 260
13.3.3 Power Factor Correction and DC Voltage Controller 266
13.4 Simulation Results 269
13.5 Conclusions 273
References 273
14 Fault Detection in Induction Motors 275
Alessandro Pilloni, Alessandro Pisano, Martin Riera-Guasp, Ruben Puche-Panadero,
and Manuel Pineda-Sanchez
14.1 Introduction 275
14.2 Description and Classification of IMs Faults 276
14.2.1 Electrical Faults 276
14.2.2 Mechanical Faults 277
14.3 Model-Based FDI in IMs 280
14.3.1 Introduction 280
14.3.2 Modeling of IMs with Faults 281
14.3.3 Fault Detection Observer Design for IMs 282
Contents xi
14.3.4 Residual Generation and Evaluation 282
14.3.5 Experimental Results 284
14.4 Classical MCSA Based on the Fast Fourier Transform 287
14.5 Hilbert Transform 289
14.5.1 Bases of the Application of the Hilbert Transform of a Phase
Current to the Diagnosis of Electrical Machines 289
14.5.2 Experimental Results 291
14.6 Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach 292
14.6.1 Basis for the Application of the DWT to Diagnostic
of Electrical Machines 292
14.6.2 Application of the DWT to the Analysis of the Start-up Current
of a Healthy Motor 295
14.6.3 Application of the DWT to the Analysis of the Start-up Current of a
Motor with a Broken Bar in the Rotor 297
14.6.4 Diagnosis of a Machine with Mixed Eccentricity through the
Start-up Current 297
14.7 Continuous Wavelet Transform Approach 298
14.7.1 Application of the CWT to Diagnostic of Electrical Machines 298
14.7.2 Application of the Complex CWT to Diagnostic
of Electrical Machines 300
14.7.3 Experimental Results 300
14.8 Wigner-Ville Distribution Approach 300
14.8.1 Basis for the Application of the WVD to Diagnostic
of Electrical Machines 300
14.8.2 Application of the WVD to Monocomponent Signals 302
14.8.3 Application of the WVD to Multicomponent Signals 303
14.9 Instantaneous Frequency Approach 304
14.9.1 Basis for the Application of the IF Approach to Diagnostic of
Electrical Machines 304
14.9.2 Calculating the IF of a Monocomponent Signal 305
14.9.3 Practical Application of the IF Approach 306
References 307
Part Four Control Design Techniques for Synchronous Motors
15 Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 313
Dhruv Shah, Gerardo Espinosa–P´erez, Romeo Ortega, and Micha¨el Hilairet
15.1 Introduction 313
15.2 PMSM Models and Problem Formulation 314
15.2.1 Problem Formulation 316
15.3 Controller Structure and Main Result 316
15.4 Unavailability of a Linearization-Based Design 318
15.5 Full Information Control 319
15.5.1 Port-Hamiltonian Model 319
xii Contents
15.5.2 A Full-Information IDA-PBC 320
15.5.3 Certainty Equivalent Sensorless Controller 322
15.6 Position Observer of Ortega et al. (2011) 322
15.6.1 Flux Observer and Stability Properties 322
15.6.2 Description of the Observer in Terms of ραβ 323
15.7 An I&I Speed and Load Torque Observer 324
15.8 Proof of the Main Result 328
15.8.1 Currents and Speed Tracking Errors 328
15.8.2 Estimation Error for ραβ 330
15.8.3 Speed and Load Torque Estimation Errors 330
15.8.4 Proof of Proposition 15.3.1 331
15.9 Simulation and Experimental Results 332
15.9.1 Simulation Results 332
15.9.2 Experimental Results 337
15.10 Future Research 337
15.A Appendix 339
References 340
16 Adaptive Output-Feedback Control of Permanent-Magnet
Synchronous Motors 341
Patrizio Tomei and Cristiano Maria Verrelli
16.1 Introduction 341
16.2 Dynamic Model and Problem Statement 343
16.3 Nonlinear Adaptive Control 344
16.4 Preliminary Result (Tomei and Verrelli 2008) 347
16.5 Main Result (Tomei and Verrelli 2011) 353
16.6 Simulation Results (Bifaretti et al. 2012) 357
16.6.1 Response to Time-Varying Load Torque 357
16.6.2 Response to Parameter Uncertainties 360
16.7 Experimental Setup and Results (Bifaretti et al. 2012) 364
16.8 Conclusions 367
References 368
17 Robust Fault Detection for a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
Using a Nonlinear Observer 370
Maria Letizia Corradini, Gianluca Ippoliti, and Giuseppe Orlando
17.1 Introduction 370
17.2 Preliminaries 371
17.2.1 PMSM Modeling 371
17.3 Control Design 372
17.3.1 A Robust Observer of Rotor Angular Position and Velocity for the
Tracking Problem 372
17.4 The Faulty Case 375
17.5 Simulation Tests 376
References 380
Contents xiii
18 On Digitization of Variable Structure Control for Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motors 381
Yong Feng, Xinghuo Yu, and Fengling Han
18.1 Introduction 381
18.2 Control System of PMSM 382
18.3 Dynamic Model of PMSM 383
18.4 PI Control of PMSM Servo System 384
18.5 High-Order Terminal Sliding-Mode Control of PMSM Servo System 385
18.5.1 Velocity Controller Design 386
18.5.2 q-Axis Current Controller Design 386
18.5.3 d-Axis Current Controller Design 387
18.5.4 Simulations 387
18.6 Sliding-Mode-Based Mechanical Resonance Suppressing Method 388
18.6.1 Load Speed Controller Design 390
18.6.2 d-Axis Current Controller Design 391
18.6.3 q-Axis Current Controller Design 391
18.6.4 Simulations 392
18.7 Digitization of TSM Controllers of PMSM Servo System 393
18.7.1 Backward Difference Discretization Method 393
18.7.2 Bilinear Transformation 393
18.8 Conclusions 396
References 396
19 Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines 398
Faz Rahman and Rukmi Dutta
19.1 Introduction 398
19.2 IPM Synchronous Machine Model 401
19.2.1 Torque-Speed Characteristics in the Steady State 403
19.2.2 Optimum Control Trajectories for IPM Synchronous Machines
in the Rotor Reference Frame 405
19.3 Optimum Control Trajectories 408
19.3.1 The MTPA Trajectory 408
19.3.2 The Field-Weakening (Constant-Power) Trajectory 409
19.3.3 Implementation Issues of Current Vector Controlled IPMSM Drive 410
19.4 Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPM Synchronous Machines 412
19.4.1 Control of the Amplitude and Rotation of the Stator
Flux Linkage Vector 414
19.4.2 Optimum Control Trajectories with DTC 416
19.4.3 Implementation of Trajectory Control for DTC 419
19.5 Sensorless DTC with Closed-Loop Flux Estimation 420
19.6 Sensorless Operation at Very Low Speed with High-Frequency Injection 423
19.7 Conclusions 426
References 427
xiv Contents
20 Nonlinear State-Feedback Control of Three-Phase Wound Rotor
Synchronous Motors 429
Abdelmounime El Magri, Vincent Van Assche, Abderrahim El Fadili, Fatima-Zahra
Chaoui, and Fouad Giri
20.1 Introduction 429
20.2 System Modeling 431
20.2.1 Three-Phases AC/DC Rectifier Modeling 431
20.2.2 Inverter-Motor Subsystem Modeling 433
20.3 Nonlinear Adaptive Controller Design 435
20.3.1 Control Objectives 435
20.3.2 Inverter-Motor Subsystem Control Design 436
20.3.3 Reactive Power and DC Voltage Controller 443
20.4 Simulation 446
20.4.1 Simulation and Implementation Considerations 446
20.4.2 Simulation Results 448
20.5 Conclusion 450
References 450
Part Five Industrial Applications of AC Motors Control
21 AC Motor Control Applications in Vehicle Traction 455
Faz Rahman and Rukmi Dutta
21.1 Introduction 455
21.1.1 Electromechanical Requirements for Traction Drives
in the Steady-State 460
21.1.2 The Impact of CPSR on Motor Power Rating and Acceleration Time
of a Vehicle 463
21.2 Machines and Associated Control for Traction Applications 464
21.2.1 Induction Machines 465
21.2.2 Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines 471
21.2.3 Switched Reluctance Machines 473
21.3 Power Converters for AC Electric Traction Drives 475
21.4 Control Issues for Traction Drives 478
21.4.1 Torque and Slip-Speed Ratio Control 478
21.4.2 Control of Regenerative Braking 480
21.5 Conclusions 485
References 486
22 Induction Motor Control Application in High-Speed
Train Electric Drive 487
Jarosław Guzi´nski, Zbigniew Krzeminski, Arkadiusz Lewicki, Haitham Abu-Rub,
and Marc Diguet
22.1 Introduction 487
22.2 Description of the High-Speed Train Traction System 488
22.2.1 Induction Motor 490
Contents xv
22.2.2 Torque Transmission System 491
22.2.3 High-Power Electronic Converter 493
22.2.4 Motor Control Principle 494
22.3 Estimation Methods 494
22.3.1 Speed Observer 494
22.3.2 Motor Torque Estimation 496
22.4 Simulation Investigations 497
22.5 Experimental Test Bench 497
22.6 Experimental Investigations 501
22.7 Diagnosis System Principles 503
22.7.1 Diagnosis of Speed Sensor 504
22.7.2 Diagnosis of Traction Torque Transmission 505
22.8 Summary and Perspectives 505
References 506
23 AC Motor Control Applications in High-Power Industrial Drives 509
Ajit K. Chattopadhyay
23.1 Introduction 509
23.2 High-Power Semiconductor Devices 510
23.2.1 High-Power SCR 511
23.2.2 High-Power GTO 511
23.2.3 IGCT/GCT 513
23.2.4 IGBT 514
23.2.5 IEGT 514
23.3 High-Power Converters for AC Drives and Control Methods 515
23.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation for Converters 516
23.3.2 Control Methods of High-Power Converter-Fed Drives 516
23.4 Control of Induction Motor Drives 517
23.4.1 Induction Motor Drives with Scalar or Volts/Hz Control 517
23.4.2 Induction Motor Drives with Vector Control 527
23.4.3 Induction Motor Drives with Direct Torque Control (DTC) 531
23.5 Control of Synchronous Motor Drives 534
23.5.1 Synchronous Motor Drives with Scalar Control 534
23.5.2 Synchronous Motor Drives with Vector Control 537
23.6 Application Examples of Control of High-Power AC Drives 539
23.6.1 Steel Mills 539
23.6.2 Cement and Ore Grinding Mills 544
23.6.3 Ship Drive and Marine Electric Propulsion 544
23.6.4 Mine Hoists, Winders, and Draglines 546
23.6.5 Pumps, Fans and Compressors in the Industry 547
23.7 New Developments and Future Trends 548
23.8 Conclusions 548
References 549
Index 553